HOW TO MAKE NOTES
1. Read the passage carefully and thoroughly
2.While reading the passage, underline the key-sentences. It will help you in forming the title and sub-titles.
3.Make a rough note of the main points and give them a logical sequence.
4.Use any format you like but it should depend on the theme of the passage. A little practice will make you adept in note-making.
1. They should be short and to the point.
2. They should have all the important and relevant information.
3. Information should be systematically divided and sub-divided.
4. Use universally recognized symbols and abbreviations wherever necessary and provide key to the abbreviations.
5. Main title should be short. Avoid a long sentence as a title unless it happens to be a common saying or a
proverb. It should reflect the spirit of the passage.
6. Notes must be written in points only. They should be listed one under the other and numbered properly.
1. Avoid the use of a full and complete sentence.
2. Do not lift portions of the passage to form notes.
3. Do not include irrelevant piece of information in your notes.
Mechanics of Note-Making
(a) Use of Abbreviations
(i) Capitalized first letter of words : UNO, CBSE, NCERT etc.
(ii) arithmetic symbols : (> <, , kg., % etc.)
(iii) Commonly used : (in newspapers, magazines etc.)
(sc., govt., Eng., Sans.)
(iv) Invented : First and last few letters of the words with a dot
at the end (edul., poln., popn. mfg.).
Note : ln case a student uses his/her invented contraction, he/she is required
to provide key for the same as:
prblm. = problem
trp’nt. = transparent
rqd. = required
dprsd. = depressed
Notes / Points of students may vary from one another but one should
ensure that the main ideas/views are covered.
(b) Proper indentation
Title: Geographical Location of India
(c) Make use of words and phrases only. Avoid full length Sentences.
(d) Give appropriate Title. The title may be given at the starting of notes
or before summary which is of -3- marks and should not be more
than 1/3 of the passage’s length.
Marking Scheme / Pattern for Note Making :
1. Notes – Heading / Title 1 Mark
2. Abbreviation / Contraction 1 Mark (Minimum four)
3. Sub-Headings (Two-three as per the requirement) along with 2-3
points. (1½ x 2)= 3
Key to Abbreviations:
1. wrtg. = writing
2. U.K. = United Kingdom
3.______ = ____________
4.______ = ____________
5.______ = ____________
SUMMARISING: (80 Words)
Students are required to write a paragraph using the main points listed in the notes. Complete sentences are used. They are logically and cohesively linked together with the help of suitable linkers. Do not use abbreviations and symbols.
Marking Scheme: Content – 02 , Expression – 01
(Standard word limit for Summary is 80 words or around 1/3 of the passage)
Unseen Passages for Note-Making (Solved)
Q 1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. There are two problems that cause great worry to our educationists – The problem of religious and moral destruction in the land of many faiths and the problems arising out of the large variety of languages.
2. Taking up the education of the children we see that they should be trained to live one another, to be kind and helpful to all, to be tender to the lower animals and to observe and think right. The task of teaching them how to read and write and to count and to calculate is important but it should not make us lose sight of the primary aim of moulding personality in the right way.
3. For this, it is necessary to call into aid culture, tradition and religion. But in our country we have, in the same school, to look after boys and girls born in different faiths and belonging to families that live diverse ways of life, easy path of evading the difficulty by attending solely to physical culture and intellectual education. We have to evolve a suitable technique and method for serving the spiritual needs of school children professing different faiths. We should thereby promote an atmosphere of mutual respect, a fuller understanding and helpful co-operation among the different communities in our society. Again we must remain one people and we have, therefore, to give basic training to our schools to speak and understand more languages than one and to appreciate and respect the different religions prevailing in India. It is not right for us in India to be overtaking the young mind. What is necessary must be done. And it is not in fact the great a burden.
4. Any attempt to do away with a stream roll the differences through governmental coercion and indirect pressure would be as futile as it would be unwise. Any imposition of a single way of life and form of workshop on all children or neglect of a section of the pupils in this respect, or barren secularization will lead to conflict between school and home life which is harmful. On the other hand, if we give due recognition to the different prevailing faiths in the educational institutions by organizing suitable facilities for religious teaching for boys and girls of all communities our problem will be solved to a larger extent. This may itself serve as a broadening influence of great national values.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage , make notes on it, in points only using headings and sub-headings. Also use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. (Minimum 4). Supply a suitable title to it.
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.
Title: Influence of Faiths and Languages on Education
1. Worry of our educationists
1.1 problem of relig. And moral edn.
1.2 innum. faiths & variety of langs.
2. Task of teaching
2.1 moulding right personality
2.2 loving one another
2.3 being kind & helpful to all
2.4 tender to lower animals
2.5 observing & thinking right
3. Spiritual needs of school children
3.1 teaching mutual respect
3.2 co-operation among diff. communities
3.3 speaking & understanding more langs. than one
Key to Abbreviations
1. education = edn.
2. languages = langs.
3. innumerable = innum.
4. and = &
5. different = diff.
6. religious = relig.
Generally school children face two types of problems. There is a problem of religions and moral education since there are innumerable faiths and languages as well. The task of teaching involves moulding right personality and that will give them love. They should learn to be kind and helpful. They should be tender to lower animals. There are certain techniques which can achieve the spiritual needs. They can learn mutual respect and cooperate with the children of different communities. It is important that they should cooperate and understand the others as well.
Q 2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8)
1. The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple-builders. Belur and Helebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasions of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition.
2. This small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three shikharas and stands on a star-shaped, raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures, was a remarkable feature. On closer look- and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned (covered decorative cloth) elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers,
warriors, musicians, crocodiles, and swans.
3. The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoyasala king, Narasimha, the Third. The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna.
4. The inner center of the temple was the kalyana mandapa. Leading from here were three corridors each ending in a shrine, one for each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and it includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. 5
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.
Title: Temple of Somnathpur
1. Temple: the beauty and vitality
1.1. Detailed sculpture – covering walls, pillars, ceilings
1.1. a. Series of friezes on outer walls
1.1. b. intricately carved elephants
1.1. c. charging horsemen
1.1. d. stylized flowers
1.1. e. warriors, musicians, crocodile and swans
1.2. three shikharas – stands *shaped, raised platform – 24 edges
1.3. the outer walls – detailed carvings
1.4. the entire surface – carved plaques of stone
1.5. vertical panels covered by exq. fig.
2. Representation of Hinduism
2.2. many deities
3. Temple in the History
3.1. comsnd. Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath
3.2. the inner center of the temple – kalyana mandapa
3.3. three corridors ending in a shrine
Key to Abbreviations
1. * = star
2. exq = exquisite
3. fig = figures
4. comsnd. = commissioned
The temple of Somnathpur is extraordinary due to the sculptures on the walls,
pillars, and even the ceiling which is covered by exquisite figures of gods and
goddesses. It is a representation of Hinduism with its many incarnations and
deities. The temple commissioned by Somnath has a ‘kalyana mandapa’ with three
corridors ending in a shrine.
Unseen Passages for Note-Making (Unsolved)
Q 3. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8)
1.The practice of soil conservation involves methods to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients, already lost by erosion and excessive crop harvesting. Most methods used to control soil erosion involve, keeping the soil covered with vegetation.
2. In conventional farming, the land is ploughed several times and smoothed to make a
planting surface – a practice that makes it vulnerable to soil erosion. To reduce erosion, an increasing number of farmers in many countries are using conservation – tillage farming, also known as minimum – tillage, or no- till farming, depending on the degree to which the soil is disturbed. Farmers using these methods disturb the soil as little as possible in planting crops.
3. For the minimum-tillage method, special tillers break up and loosen the subsurface soil without turning over the topsoil. In no-till farming special planting machines inject seeds, fertilizers and weed-killers into slits made in the unploughed soil.
4.In addition to reducing soil erosion, conversation – tillage and no-till farming reduce
Fuel and tillage costs and water loss from soil. They can also increase the number of
crops that can be grown during a season.
5.Soil erosion can also be reduced by 30-50 percent on gently sloping land by means of
contour farming – ploughing and planting crops in rows across, rather than up and down, the sloped contours of the land. Each row planted horizontally along the slope of the land acts as a small dam to help hold and slow the runoff of water.
6. Terracing can be used on steeper slopes. Each terrace retains some of the water running down the vegetated slope. Terracing provides water for crops at all levels and decreases soil erosion by reducing the amount and speed of water runoff. In areas of high rainfall, diversions ditches must be built behind each terrace to permit adequate drainage.
7. In strip cropping, a series of rows of one crop, such as corn or soybeans, is planted in a wide strip. Then the next strip is planted with a soil-conserving cover crop, such as grass or grass-legume mixture, which completely covers the soil and thus reduces erosion. These alternating rows of cover trap soil that erodes from the other rows, catch and reduce water runoff, and help prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests from one strip to another.
8. Windbreaks can reduce erosion caused by exposure of cultivated lands to high winds or shelter beats. These are long rows of trees planted to partially block the wind. Windbreaks also provide habitats for birds, pest eating and pollinating insects and other animals.
1.On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (5 marks)
2. Write a summary of the notes prepared in not more than 80 words. (3 marks)
Q 4. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives.
2. Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home – as a companion to her own son – a little boy who happened to have a hunchback. She had warned her son to be careful not to refer to his disability, and to go right on playing with him as if he were like any other boy.
3. The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion: “Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued: “It is the box in which your wings are and someday God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel”.
4. Often it takes a third eye or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other saying assured me that
God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me.
5. The import of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock bottom or lonely or even deserted. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of pain and distress.
6. The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hate and hard-heartedness prevail, they get channeled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is often the plus factor that helps build character. It
helps us to accept and to overcome suffering. It creates lasting bonds and its reach is infinite.
7. It is true that there is no shortage of destructive elements – forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process, destroy themselves – but at the same time there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look only at gloom and doom – let’s seek out positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered.
1. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. 5
2. Write a summary of the notes prepared in not more than 80 words (3 marks)
Q 5. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
In a very short period of time the internet has had a profound impact on the way we live. Since the Internet was made operational in 1983, it has lowered both the costs of communication and the barriers to creative expression. lt has challenged old business models and enabled new ones. lt has provided access to information on a scale never before achievable. lt succeeded because we designed it to be flexible and open. These two features have allowed it to accommodate innovation without massive changes to its infrastructure. An open, border less and standardized platform means that barriers to entry are low competition is high, interoperability is assured and innovation is rapid.
The beauty of an open platform is that there are no gatekeepers. For centuries, access to and creation of information was controlled by the few. The internet has changed that and is rapidly becoming the platform for everyone, by everyone.
Of course, it still has a way to go. Today there are only about 2.3 billion internet users, representing roughly 30% of the world’s population. Much of the information that they can access online is in English, but this is changing rapidly.
The technological progress of the internet has also set social change in motion. As with other enabling inventions before it, from the telegraph to television, some will worry about the effects of broader access to information — the printing press and the rise in literacy that it effected were, after all, long seen as destabilising. Similar concerns about the internet are occasionally raised, but if we take a long view, l’m confident that its benefits far outweigh the discomforts of learning to integrate it into our lives. The internet and the world wide web are what they are because literally millions of people have made it so. It is a grand collaboration.
lt would be foolish not to acknowledge that the openness of the internet has had a price. Security is an increasingly important issue and cannot be ignored. lf there is an area of vital research and development for the internet, this is one of them. I am increasingly confident, however, that techniques and practices exist to make the internet safer and more secure while retaining its essentially open quality.
After working on the internet and its predecessors for over four decades, l’m more optimistic about its promise than l have ever been. We are all free to innovate on the net every day. The internet is a tool of the people, built by the people for the people and it must stay that way.
(a) On the basis of your reading ot the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum four) wherever necesary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. (5 marks)
(b)Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3 marks)
Q 6. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Toddlers with greying hair, an eight year old with high pressure and cholesterol, a pre- adolescent who has the physique of a 20 year old – the signs are ominous. Biological clocks in children are ticking rapidly and the rate at which their organs are aging is faster than their chronological age.
The country’s medical fraternity may take pride in improving life expectancy, but the spurt in lifestyle diseases, especially among children, has resulted in premature aging. This means the increased life expectancy doesn’t necessarily translate into improved quality of life. Every organ in human body has an age and when a child suffers from lifestyle diseases like
cholesterol and diabetes, his or her organs take a beating. Thus, the functionality of an eight – year- old child’s organs is that of a 30 – year- old. Manifestations of their problems are evident, with children as young as three sporting glasses, early signs of facial hair in boys.
Doctors in India say that they are treating more children with ailments usually associated with adults. Diabetes and hypertension is leading to stress on organs. Children’s organs are aging , though they may be young in terms of years. Genetic factors account for a meager 20% of premature aging. The main reasons areenvironmental and dietary. Paediatric obesity, which is reaching epidemic proportions, high stress levels, sedentary and changing lifestyles and various chemicals used in food contribute to premature aging. When diabetes sets in at an early stage, the child’s blood vessels start stiffening which happens only in older people. Technically, we are starting at a scenario, where the child is aging much faster than his chronological age.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4) wherever necessary. Use a format that you consider appropriate. Also suggest a suitable title/ heading. (5 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3 marks)
Q 7. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Excessive use of plastic bags and their unregulated disposal has been choking lakes, ponds and urban sewage systems, the Supreme Court said on Monday while warning that it posed a threat more serious than the atom bomb for the next generation.
This observation from a bench of Justices G.S. Singhvi and S .J. Mukhopadhaya came on a PIL filed by two Andhra Pradesh-based NGOs drawing the court’s attention to 30-60 kg of plastic bags recovered from the stomachs of cows because of irresponsible disposal of plastic bags and defunct municipal waste collection system.
The court issued notice to the Center and state governments on the PIL seeking ban on use of plastic bags in municipal areas which did not have a prompt garbage collection, segregation and disposal system. The NGOs said absence of a proper system allowed cows to rummage through garbage bins and eat foodstuff disposed of in plastic bags, which get stuck in their stomach. “Apart from the plastic choking the digestive system of the plastic residues enter the human food chain through dairy and animal products,” he added.
But the bench wanted to address the larger questions arising from indiscriminate use of plastic bags, which not only posed a grave threat to nature and environment but also to the human race itself. It suggested that the petitioner make the manufacturers and a television channel, which has been running a campaign against use of plastic, parties to the PIL for a wider scrutiny of the important issue.
We want to expand the scope of this petition. Unless we examine a total ban on plastic bags or put in place a system for manufactures mandating them to collect back all plastic bags, the next generation will be threatened with something more serious than the atom bomb.” the bench said. The court also drew the petitioner’s attention to large quantities of water packed in plastic pouches, which were thrown around in undisciplined manner across the country every day, “A rough estimate shows more than 100 million water pouches are thrown away,” the bench said.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (Minimum four) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. (5 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3 marks)
Q 8. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Trail of smoke in most cases inevitably leads to school. And college days-those adolescent times when mere lighting up gave them the thrill of indulging in the prohibited. And yes, they weren’t mama’s boy (or girls) anymore; they were macho and grown up beyond listening to nannies. Or so they thought, till they got addicted.
There is a clear link between the youth and tobacco addiction. Statistics reveal that many children are initiated into the habit of smoking at the tender age of 10 years, according to Dr. Srinath Reddy, a researcheractivist. That’s why it make sense to stop them young, when they are vulnerable to peer pressure. Smoking, which often starts as an experiment in the company of friends often transforms into addiction.
According to the Non-Smoker’s Health Protection Act 1997 nobody is allowed to store, sell or distribute cigarettes, beedies or any other tobacco product within an area of 100 m around colleges, schools and other educational institutions. The Indian Parliament passed another comprehensive legislation, the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act, a few years ago banning the sale of tobacco products to minors. Has that made any difference? “You have to go to north campus to see if any law is followed.”
Many students even argue that it is a matter of personal choice. “Once in college, a student is old enough to take decisions. lt is clearly mentioned on cigarette packs that ‘smoking is injurious to health’ and after that if someone smokes, it is completely the individual’s choice,” says Manu Singh, a student at JNU.
Sad reality is that nothing has been able to stop students from smoking in schools and colleges. lt’s fashion.
The law enforcement agencies takes refuge behind pleas like they have large areas to cover with a small term. Their strength, they say, is not adequate to enforce laws. “Sometimes people pay the fine (Rs 200), which is hardly a big amount. ln universities and colleges, raids are not possible. With just one person from the police, it becomes impossible to control them,” said Dr. M.D. Thapa, Chief District Medical Officer, Northwest district.
Advocate Ashok Agarwal does not buy the argument According to him, there is a clear lack of interest on the part of the lawmakers. “The police and the administration have their own priorities hence, they have little time to look into these sensitive issues. The situation in this case is that of accepted and agreed violation where just nobody is bothered.” he says. The one answer the experts agree on is; the government. “There is no effort to implement the laws,” complains advocate Ashok Agarwal. When society does not care, the government becomes duty-bound to make them care. There is a direct link between the youth and tobacco addiction. They are the key targets for the MNCs,” says Bijon Mishra, a social activist involved with the NGO, Voice. While society and its institution ignore those mischievous puffs in school canteens, the biggest beneficiaries are the tobacco companies.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate Supply a suitable Title. (5 Marks)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3 Marks)
Q 9. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
There’s a part of India where the tiger may still have a fighting chance ; the Western- Ghats. The big cat roams free here and in good numbers, from the southern tip right up to Maharashtra, Eight tiger reserves-in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have been rated ‘good’ to ‘satisfactory’ by the Centre’s 2009 preliminary status report on the tiger. Experts say this is because of good governance, constant surveillance and monitoring, pro-active local tribes a zealous scientific community, habitat quality and contiguity and an excellent ‘prey base’, which means plentiful supplies of deer.
ln Mudumalal, for instance, tiger numbers are believed nearly to have doubled in recent times. Field director Rajiv K Srivastava says antipoaching watchers patrol the deep deciduous forests round-the-clock. “The wireless network helps rush them to vulnerable areas when they receive information about movement of suspected poachers,” he adds. Each watcher, mostly from a local tribe, covers 15-20 km daily.
The tiger has also returned to Sathyamangalam sanctuary-erstwhile Veerappan country-after two decades. Some say this is because the guns have fallen silent, along with rising tiger numbers in adjoining Mudumalal and Bandipur; which sends the animals looking for more area to roam. Scientists working in the field spotted two tigresses with five cubs at two
different locations last year. Forest officers estimate that there are atleast 10 tigers in the division.
The 2008 status report on tigers by the National Tiger Conservation Authority and Wildlife Institute of India estimates tiger numbers in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala at 402, with a lower limit of 336 and upper limit of 487. The Bandipur and Nagar-hole tiger reserves are almost full “High quality research on tigers and their prey base has resulted in a pool of scientific data which facilitates reliable monitoring” says Ravi Chellam, country director, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), India programme, WCS staff range across 22,00 sq km of forest in Karnataka, tracking tigers to gather data from the field. Every quarter, the WCS shares data with the Karnataka forest department. “Strict protection of the forests by using science is the hallmark of tiger conservation in Karnataka,” says Chellam.
Recently, WCS scientists led by Ullas Karanth used high-tech fecal sampling to tally and assess numbers. Tiger scat is thought to provide a unique DNA signature allowing researchers to accurately identify individual animals.
Another encouraging sign are tiger sightings in non-contiguous areas. This indicates the presence of a “meta-population,” i.e., tigers who move from one reserve to another, thereby improving the gene pool. This gives conservationists reason to hope that another not waiting to happen in the south.
ln the Eastern Ghats, the Nagarjunasagar-Srisilam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh is back from the brink. The centre’s report damned the reserve as ‘poor’. The naxalite presence threatened the tiger’s core habitat for more than a decade and foresters could not enter the area. But the tiger population inched up to 53 in 2008 form just 34 in the nineties. “The Naxal presence is still there. But the forest field staff have started going inside for habitat improvement, a vast change from the time when no kind of administration existed there,” says AK Nayak, the field director.
But there are reasons to worry as well. At a recent seminar in Chennai, the chief wildlife wardens of the southern states admitted they did not have enough trained staff to take on poachers. ln the rainforest habitats of Kalakad-Periyar and Anaimalal-Parambikulam, low tiger density can be reversed only if the prey base is protected. “The time has come for the foresters to go back to old- fashioned conservation, that is physical protection of forests, leaving development to other departments.”
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4) wherever necessary. Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable Title. (5 Marks)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.