Grammar – Clauses

Clauses

clause is a group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a predicate of its own. With respect to clause there are three kinds of sentence.

1. Simple Sentence
2. Compound Sentence
3. Complex Sentence
1. Simple Sentence

A sentence that has only one clause is called a simple sentence.
a. I wrote a letter to my uncle.
b. Richard stood first in his class.
c. The boy broke his leg.
d. She washed her clothes.
2. Compound Sentence

A sentence that has two or more independent clauses is called a compound sentence.
1. The sun rose and the fog disappeared.
2. Many were called, but few were chosen.
3. Men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
Each clause of a compound sentence is called Co-ordinate Clause.
3. Complex Sentence
A sentence that has a principal clause and one or more Subordinate clauses is called a Complex Sentence.
1. Independent /Principal Clause: is a simple sentence. It can stand on its own.
2. Dependent /Subordinate Clause: cannot stand on its own. It needs an independent clause to complete a sentence. Dependent clauses often begin with such words as although, that, where, since, if, when, unless, because etc.

Examples:

Independent /Principal clause
Dependent /Subordinate Clause
wait
until I return.
I know
where he is.
I cannot do this
unless you help me.
I wish
that you would succeed.
He worked hard
that he might win the prize.
He lost the book
that I had given him.
Subordinate clauses are of three kinds:

1. The Noun Clause: does the work of a noun.
2. The Adjective Clause:does the work of an adjective.
3. The Adverbial Clause:does the work of an adverb.
The Noun Clause
A noun clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own
And does the work of a Noun. For example:
1. I expect to get a prize.
2. I expect that I shall get a prize.
The first group of words, to get a prize, does not contain a subject and a predicate of its own. It is therefore a phrase. This phrase is object of the verb expect and hence does the work of Noun. It is therefore a Noun Phrase.
The second group of words, that I shall get a prize, contains a subject and a predicate of its own. It is therefore a clause. This clause is the object of the verb expectand so does the work of noun. We therefore call it a Noun Clause.
The Adjective Clause

An adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, and does the work of an adjective. For example:
1. The umbrella with a broken handle is mine.
2. The umbrella which has a broken handleis mine.
The first group of words, with a broken handle, describes the umbrella, qualifies the noun umbrella, and does the work of an adjective. It is what we call an Adjective phrase.
The second group of words, which has a broken handle, also describes the umbrella and so does the work of an adjective. But because it contains a subject and a predicate of its own, it is called an adjective clause.
The Adverbial Clause

An Adverb Clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, and does the work of an Adverb. For example:

1. The stolen property was found in the dacoits’ hiding place.
2. The stolen property was found where the dacoits were accustomed to hide.
It will be noticed that both the groups of words do the work of an Adverb. But the group of words in the sentence 2 is a clause because it has a subject (the dacoits) and a predicate (were accustomed to hide) of its own; while the group of words in the sentence 1 is a phrase.












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