CBSE Class 12 Phy. Edu. Unit-12-Training in Sports

Unit 12 - Training in Sports 

 

Introduction

 

Training means the process of preparation for some task. But here our main task is fitness and conditioning for sports and games. It is only due to that, this term is mostly used in sports and games. So it is called ‘sports training.’

 

There is a close relationship between sports and physical education. The reality is that effort is made to perform the different activities of physical education and sports by different methods which may help in the development of the personality and character of a child. By means of the sports training, effort is made to bring reform in the demonstration of the players. Although it is true that the demonstration of sports depends upon many factors. At the primary standard, the demonstration of the player wholly depends upon his own capability, which is a balanced collection of five factors—speed, flexibility, strength, endurance and co-ordination.

 

  

Meaning of Training

 

We can understand the meaning of training with the help of following definitions:

 

1. “Training in sports is a systematic process extending over a long period. If the training in sports is based on scientific facts and guidelines, it will give definitely the best results.”

 

2. “Training in sports is a planned and controlled process in which, for achieving a goal, changes in complex sports, motor performance, ability to act and behaviour are made through measures of content, method and organization.”

 

3. “Training in sports is a continuous process, based on the scientific principles, preparing a sportsman for the maximum higher performance in particular time of sports competitions.”

 

Concept of Training

 

The word training is commonly used in sports and physical education which means the preparation for some task. Training in sports involves several physical activities along with other means and methods when one looks at the training of advanced sportspersons. Sports medicine, sports physiology, sports psychology, biomechanics and physiotherapy are the training means and measures of advanced sportspersons. 

 

Training in sports is done for improving sports performance, but the regular and systematic training, exercises however, do not guarantee the maximum improvement in performance. The effect of training is increased or decreased by various factors. If some of these factors are ignored by the coaches and trainers, it leads to a decrease in the performance of the individual.

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

 

Q1. What is sports training?

 

Ans. Sports training is a specialized process of all round physical conditioning aimed at the preparation of sportspersons for improving performance in games and sports.

 

Q2. What are pace races?

 

Ans. Pace races are an effective training method for improving speed endurance. A pace race generally means running race of 800 metres or more at a uniform speed, with another athlete running 10-15 metres ahead of the other athletes who sets the pace of running. This uniform speed running is repeated at intervals fixed according to the standard of the athlete.

 

Q3. What is the interval training method?

 

Ans. Interval training method is called terrace training. It is a training of the heart through endurance training and based upon the effort and recovery principle.

 

Q4. What is speed?

 

Ans. Speed is the ability of an individual to perform a movement of the same pattern at faster rate.

 

Q5. What is flexibility?

 

Ans. Flexibility is the range of movement of joints. Flexibility can be defined as the ability to execute movement with greater amplitude or range.

 

Q6. Define Endurance.

 

Ans. According to Barrow McGee, “endurance as the result of a physiological capacity of the individual to sustain movement over a period of time. According to Herre “endurance is the ability to resist fatigue.”

 

Q7. List any four training methods.

 

Ans. Some useful training methods are: 

 

(a) Circuit training

(b) Interval training

(c) Continuous training

(d) Fartlek training

(e) Weight training

 

Q8. What are the methods for developing flexibility?

 

Ans. Methods for developing flexibility are:

 

(a) Ballistic method

(b) Static stretching method

(c) Dynamic stretching method

(d) Proprioceptive neuron muscular facilitation technique

 

Q9. What are Isometric Exercises?

 

Ans. Isometric Exercises are those exercises which are not visible. In fact, there are no direct movements, hence they cannot be observed. In these exercises, work is performed but it is not seen directly.

 

Q10. What are Iso-kinetic Exercises?

 

Ans. Iso-kinetic exercises are performed on specially designed machines. These exercises were developed by Perrine in 1968. These exercises involve a specific type of much contraction which is usually not applicable in sports and games except in water-sports like rowing and swimming.

 

Q11. Define strength.

 

Ans. According to Barrow and McGee, “Strength is the capacity of the whole body or of any of its part to exert force”. According to Mathews “muscular strength is the force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in one maximum effort.”

 

Q12. What do you mean by dynamic strength?

 

Ans. Dynamic strength can be called isotonic strength because it is related to the movements. In pull-ups and pushups we require dynamic strength. In performing such workout, there is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength and as a result, after sometimes, muscles refuse to do work.

 

Q13. What do you mean by static strength?

 

Ans. Static strength is also called isometric strength. It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance. Static strength can be measured by dynamometer. This type of strength is not seen directly.

 

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

 

Q1. Elucidate any two principles of sports training.

 

Ans. Two principles of sports training are:

 

(a) Principle of Progression: The principle of progression also makes us realise the nod for proper rest and recovery. The overload should not be increased too rapidly. If the overload is increased too rapidly, it may result in injury or muscle damage.

 

(b) Principle of Specificity: Principle of specificity states that exercising a certain part or component of the body primarily develops that part. It means that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill.

 

Q2. Suggest different ways to improve reaction ability of a player.

 

Ans. Improved reaction ability is a performance prerequisite to do motor actions under given conditions in minimum time. There are two methods for improving this. They are:

 

(a) Acceleration Runs test the ability to achieve high speed of locomotion from a stationary position or from a slow moving position. Acceleration ability is improved indirectly by improving on explosive strength, technique and movement frequency.

 

(b) Short sprints of 25 to 80 m are the best means. The maximum speed achieved by a sprinter from a stationary start is for about 6 sec. Various researches have shown that during a sprint run the speed also increases with time.

 

Q3. Explain the concept of fartlek training.

 

Ans. Fartlek is a Swedish term which means speed play. In such type of training, an athlete can adopt any pace as per his wish and ability to complete a specific distance. The main aspect of this training is that he has to cover the distance in fixed time. He can also change his speed or pace according to the various geographical surroundings like hills, rivers, forests, muddy roads and grassy grounds etc. During fartlek training, the rate of heartbeat should range between 140-180 beats/min. It improves the efficiency of the lungs and heart for an activity for duration of not less than 15 min.

 

Q4. Briefly explain the advantages of fartlek training.

 

Ans. Advantages of fartlek training are:

 

(a) It is good for increasing strength and cardio respiratory endurance.

(b) Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.

(c) It does not require any equipment and can be organized easily.

(d) This training method is not rigid; it is flexible in nature.

(e) It improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs.

(f) It provides experience of nature.

 

Q5. Discuss two types of flexibility.

 

Ans. Two Types of flexibilities are: 

 

(a) Active Flexibility is the ability to do movement for a longer distance without external help e. g. Exercise without partner. Ability to do movement for a greater distance with external help.

 

(b) Passive Flexibility exercise with the help of a partner. It is always more than active flexibility.

 

Q6. What are various factors of speed?

 

Ans. The various factors of speed are:

 

(a) Time taken to respond to a given stimulus, e. g. start in races.

(b) Ability of the body to achieve maximum possible speed in minimum possible time e. g. 50 m run, 60 m run, 80 m run etc.

(c) Time taken by a muscle or group of muscles to complete a movement e. g. 100 m race from start to finish.

(d) Ability of the body to maintain maximum speed for maximum duration e. g. maintenance phase in 100 m race.

(e) Speed Endurance Ability of the body to perform any movement speedily under the condition of fatigue e. g. pace races.

 

Q7. What do you mean by dynamic strength and static strength? 

 

Ans. 1. Dynamic strength can be called isotonic strength because it is related to the movements. In pull-ups and push-ups we required dynamic strength. In performing such workouts, there is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength and as a result, after sometimes, muscles refuse to do work. Generally dynamic strength is divided into three parts:

 

(a) Maximum strength

(b) Explosive strength

(c) Strength endurance.

 

2. Static strength is also called isometric strength. It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance. Static strength can be measured by dynamometer.

 

Q8. Define maximum strength and explosive strength.

 

Ans.1. Maximum strength: It is the ability to act against maximum resistance. Maximum strength is not usually used in majority of sports. It is usually used in those sports in which very heavy resistances have to be tackled, e.g. Weightlifting, shot-put, hammer throw etc.

 

2. Explosive strength: Explosive strength can be defined as the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. In fact, it is a combination of strength and speed abilities. Explosive strength is generally used in sprint starts, weightlifting, shot put etc.

 

Q9. State basic endurance and general endurance.

 

Ans. 1. Basic endurance: Basic endurance is also called aerobic endurance. In fact, basic endurance is the ability to perform movements in which large number of body muscles are involved and the activity is performed at slow pace for long duration.

 

2. General endurance: General endurance is the ability to resist fatigue satisfactorily caused by different types of activities. These activities may be aerobic or anaerobic in nature. These activities may be of low or high intensity but for longer duration.

 

Q10. What do you mean by short-term and long term endurance?

 

Ans. Short-term endurance: Short term endurance is needed to resist fatigue in sports activities lasting from about 45 seconds to 2 minutes. This endurance also depends to a large extent on strength endurance and speed endurance.

 

Long-term endurance: Long-term endurance is need in such sports activities which last for more than eleven minutes. The sports activities such as 5000 m, 10,000 m cross country and marathon races requires such type, of endurance.

 

Q11. State continuous training method in brief.

 

Ans. Continuous training is one of the best methods for improving endurance. In this method of training an exercise is performed for a long duration without any break. In this method, intensity remains low because the exercise is done for a longer period. Cross-country race is the best example of continuous method. The total duration of the exercise should not be less than 30 min. The duration of exercise can be increased according to endurance ability of the sportsperson or athlete.

 

Q12. Discuss about reaction ability.

 

Ans. Reaction ability depends completely on coordinative processes. So, it is also considered a coordinative ability. Reaction ability is the ability to react effectively and quickly to any action or signal. In games and sports signals can be of various types such as visual or tactile. In games and sports, reaction ability is not only significant to react quickly to a signal but the reaction should also be accurate according to situation. Reaction ability can be classified into simple reaction ability and complex reaction ability.

 

 

Q13. Discuss any two methods of improving strength.

 

Ans.1. Isometric exercises are those exercises, which are not visible. In fact, there are no direct movements, hence they cannot be observed. In these exercises, work is performed but it is not seen directly.

 

2. Isotonic exercise are those exercises in which movements can be seen directly. Work is done in these exercises. Isotonic exercises tone up the muscles. Muscles become flexible. Length of the muscle can be increased by isotonic exercise. These exercises are of much values in the field of sports.

 

Q14. Discuss the type of endurance according to the nature of activity.

 

Ans.1. Basic endurance: Basic endurance is also called aerobic endurance because basic endurance depends mainly on aerobic endurance. In fact, basic endurance is the ability to perform movements in which large number of body muscles are involved and the activity is performed at slow pace for long duration.

 

2. General endurance: General endurance is the ability to resist fatigue satisfactorily caused by different types of activities. These activities may be aerobic or anaerobic in nature. These activities may be of low or high intensity but for longer duration.

 

3. Specific endurance: Specific endurance is the ability to resist fatigue caused by a specific or particular sports activity. As the nature of fatigue is different from sports to sports, the specific endurance is also different from sports to sports.

 

Q15. Explain the term warming up'. What are its advantages? 

 

Ans. Warming up is a process in which muscles are warmed up by running, jogging and performing some freehand exercises prior to training or competition. A warming up session is divided into two parts:

 

(a) General warming up

(b) Specific warming up

 

Warming up should not be less than 15 min and not more than 40 min.

 

Advantages

(i) It raises the body temperature.

(ii) It creates tension in the muscles and makes the joints comparatively active.

(iii) It improves metabolic reaction.

(ìv) It reduces the chances of muscular injuries.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5Marks)

 

 

 

Q1. Define strength and discuss the methods of improving strength in detail.

 

Ans. Strength is the capacity of the whole body or of any of its parts to exert force. The following are the methods: 

 

1. Isometric exercise: These are those exercises, which are not visible. In fact, there are no direct movements, hence they cannot be observed. In these exercises, work in performed but it is not seen directly.

 

2. Isotonic exercise: These are those exercises in which movements can be seen directly. Work is done in these exercises. Isotonic exercises tone up the muscles becomes flexible. Length of the muscles can be increased by isotonic exercises. These exercises are of much values in the field of sports.

 

3. Iso-kinetic exercise: Iso-kinetic exercises are performed on specially designed machines. These exercises were developed by Perrine in 1968. These exercises involve a specific type of muscle contraction, which is usually not applicable in sports and games except in water- sports like rowing and swimming.

 

Q2. Define endurance and discuss any two methods of improving endurance.

 

Ans. Endurance is the result of a physiological capacity of the individual to sustain movement over a period of time. The following are the methods to improve endurance: 

 

1. Continuous training method: It is one of the best method for improving endurance. In this method of training an exercise is performed for a long duration without any break. In this method, intensity remains low because the exercise is done for a long period of time. Cross-country race is the best example of continuous training.

 

2. Interval training method: It is a training of heart, through endurance training. If you run, your heart beats at a faster rate. Bikila, the famous athletic coach of Finland, introduced this training method in 1920. He stressed the importance of rhythm between work and rest in the method, and called it Torrance Training. He was the greatest coach and athlete of his time.

 

Q3. Define speed and discuss the types of speed in detail.

 

Ans. Speed is the capacity of an individual to perform successive movement of the same pattern at a fast rate. The following are the types of speed: 

 

1. Movement speed: It is the ability to do a movement in minimum time. It depends upon technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative abilities. It plays a vital role in boxing, wrestling, throws, jumps, gymnastics, turns in swimming and in sprinting starts. It can be measured by the time taken to complete the movement.

 

2. Locomotor ability: It is the ability to maintain maximum speed for maximum time or distance. This ability is very significant in only a few sports events such as 100 m, 200 m, 400 m races, short sprints in track cycling etc.

 

3. Speed endurance: Speed endurance is the ability to perform movements with high speed under conditions of fatigue. Speed endurance is a very complicated ability which depends upon explosive strength, speed and endurance. It also depends upon technique, local muscular endurance and lactic acid tolerance ability.

 

Q4. Elucidate the methods of improving speed.

 

Ans. Speed can be improved in the following way:

 

1. Acceleration runs: Acceleration runs are usually adopted to develop speed, specially in attaining maximum speed from stationary position. It should be kept in mind that the technique of any event should be learned in the beginning. Only then, we should switch over to acceleration runs. For example: in 100 m sprint race, we should lay stress on the technique of start and complete running action, we should practice it at a slow speed.

 

2. Pace runs or races: Pace races mean, running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the race with uniform speed. Generally, 800 metres and above races are included in pace races. As a matter of act, an athlete can run a distance of 300 metres at full speed. So, in longer races such as 800 m or above races he must conserve his energy by reducing his speed.

 

Q5. What do you mean by flexibility? Elaborate different methods to improve flexibility.

 

Ans. Flexibility can be defined as the ability to execute movements with greater amplitude or range. It is affected by muscle length, joint structure tendons, ligaments, and other factors. The following are the methods to improve the flexibility:

 

1. Ballistic method: In ballistic method, the movement is performed with a swing in a rhythmic way. The related joint is stretched with a swing. The stretching exercise can be performed rhythmically with a count. At each count, the joint is stretched to the maximum limit and then it is again flexed.

 

2. Static stretching method: Static stretching method involves gradually easing into the stretch position and holding the position. The amount of time a static stretch is held depends on one’s purpose. If it is a part of cool down, then the stretch should be held for 10 seconds.

 

3. Dynamic stretching method: Dynamic stretching consists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you gently to the limit of your range of motion. Where the event requires a dynamic movement it is appropriate to conduct dynamic stretching exercises.

 

Q. What do you mean by coordinative abilities? Mention any two types of coordinative abilities.

 

Ans. Coordinative abilities are those abilities of an individual which enable the individual to do various related activities properly as well as efficiently. Our accuracy, rhythm, flow and constancy depend on our coordinative abilities. The following are the types of the coordinative abilities:

1.Orientation ability: It is the ability to determine the position of • the body and its parts in time and space in relation to gravity, moving objects like ball, opponent, partner and playing field etc. This ability depends on functional capacity of sensory organs like eyes and kinesthetic sense organs etc.

 

2. Coupling Ability: Coupling ability is the ability to combine the movements of different body parts for performing perfect sports movements. This ability is very significant for approximately all sports but specially in team games, gymnastics and combative sports (boxing and wrestling etc.). For example in boxing, the movements of hands, head, trunk and fat are essential to couple to achieve a certain goal.

 

 

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