CBSE Class 12 Phy. Edu. Unit-4-Postures

 

 

Unit 4 - Postures

 

Introduction 

 

Posture is a reflection of the ‘position’ of many systems that are regulated, determined and created through limited basic rough patterns. These patterns reflect our ability and inability to breathe, rotate and rest, systematically with the left and right hemispheres of our axial, structure. Posture is the way we sit, stand, kneel and walk. It is determined by the body structure. It can also be influenced by genetic and emotional factors. Our modern lifestyle combines with forces of gravity, often ruin our healthy upright posture.

 

Definitions of Posture

 

1. “Posture can be defined as the position of body in regard to the environment at any given instant.”

2. “Good posture is one in which the body is so balanced as to produce least fatigue.”

3. “Good/Correct posture is the position of the body held without any sense of effort.”

4. “Correct/Good posture may also be defined as that assumed position which enables the body to perform effectively.”

 

Correct Posture 

 

Good/Correct posture can be termed as the right position of the body assumed while doing any action from time to time so that minimum energy is consumed in order to get maximum efficiency. Correct posture is the balancing of body in accurate and proper manner while sitting, standing, reading and writing or during any other action of body. Posture is dynamic and changes according to the activity.

 

A good posture is one which requires a minimum amount of energy for the maintenance of good alignments. Correct or good posture of the body is defined as a position in which the skeleton is held erect in a position that is mechanically most favourable for the transmission of body weight. The line in the correct posture should pass from the highest point on the skull, along the ears, through weight bearing surfaces of the cervical and lumber vertebrae and through the centres of hip, knee and ankle joints. The only place through it does not pass are the surfaces of vertebrae of the dorsal region. This is due to the natural curve in this region. A good posture needs minimum effort to balance the body in on erect position. There are persons who are suffering from many minor ills such as backache, constipation, chronic figure, eye strain and fatigue, these types of persons have faulty or bad posture.

 

Causes of Bad Posture 

 

A bad posture may be acquired or may be congenital. There are so many causes of poor posture:

(1) Lack of Exercise: Exercise tones up the spinal nerves and abdominal organs, improves digestion, promotes flexibility and co-ordination, reduces mental strain, provides energy and improves physical ability and efficiency. Lack of exercise is also a factor of poor posture.

 

(2) Weakness: It is not possible to assume and maintain erect posture without expenditure of some energy. The muscular weakness and lack of viability is thus responsible for such faulty posture.

 

(3) Improper Clothing: The type of dress one wears also has impact or effect on posture i.e., high heel shoes, tight shoes tight fitted dress.

 

(4) Improper Diet: Improper diet may result in various diseases due to deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and results in adopting faulty and poor posture.

 

(5) Habit: Habits of posture, whether good or bad, are acquired in the same way as the habits of walking, speaking or sitting i.e., by practicing a certain type of co-ordination so many times that the act becomes unconscious and habitual and wrong habits are caused by occupation and environments also.

 

(6) Chronic Fatigue: Due to continuous work lack of rest and sound sleep without proper relaxation the body and mind become over-worked and cause poor posture.

 

(7) Overload: One may develop round shoulders and deformities of spine like kyphosis and scoliosis by continuously lifting heavy weight on shoulders and the upper back.

 

(8) Mental Attitude: A posture is the manner in which we carry or hold our body and it is bound to reflect our mental attitude, feeling of happiness, confidence and satisfaction help to maintain a balanced and erect posture, whereas depression and feeling of sadness pose hurdles in proper posture maintaining.

 

(9) Injury: When a bone, muscle or ligament is injured it is likely to weaken the support at that point and throw the framework out of balance. Even after the injury is fully healed the habit developed during the injury and faulty posture may continue for a long time, so it becomes a cause of poor posture.

 

(10) Heredity: Heredity is another factor which is responsible for poor or defective posture. Heredity defects like kyphosis and other genetic defects may cause poor posture.

 

(11) Unhygienic Conditions: Crowded class rooms with improper sitting arrangement, improper and insufficient lighting arrangements etc. also have bad effects on posture.

 

(12) Diseases: The posture is greatly affected by the diseases that weaken the bones and the muscles and causes the joints to lose their strength or mobility. So it's a big cause of poor posture.

 

Remedial Measures

 

Massage and active and passive movement to be done to strengthen the weak muscle. Performing padmasana and gomukhasana regularly for some time is a good option. Horse riding is the best exercise for remedication of this deformity. To remove this deformity, extra care should be taken while walking, standing and other weight bearing positions. Walking on an outward

 

Advances of Correct Posture 

 

A healthy and attractive body is the result of several factors. It is a healthy and beautiful body that creates a good impression on others, on the other hand, a weak, ugly and deformed physique has a negative effect. A muscular and healthy body, and erect posture, a shining face and good stature are always appreciated by all persons. Physical appearance without good health or good body support and carriage has a very ugly and poor impact on one's personality.

 

(1) The correct posture helps in maintaining proper manner of walking or carrying of one’s body, is of great significance because it creates the first impression of the personality of an individual and is sometimes the last impression.

 

(2) Correct or good posture helps in the development of personality. Personality is a strange mixture of the qualities of a human being and it is difficult to pinpoint a single factor responsible for one's personality.

 

(3) Good posture is a measure of one’s alertness.

 

(4) It is said that a good posture and manner command respect. The importance of this factor in personality assessment becomes quite clear from the methodology adopted in various beauty contests.

 

(5) According to some behavioural observers, certain traits of one's personality such as honesty, alertness etc. can be judged from posture and the carriage of an individual.

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

 

Q1. What is correct posture?

 

Ans. Correct posture means the balancing of body in accurate and proper manner while sitting, standing, reading, and writing, walking, running or during any other action.

 

Q2. What are postural deformities?

 

Ans. Postural deformities imply not having proper alignment of body parts. An individual who has postural deformities cannot perform his work efficiently. Some postural deformities are Kyphosis, flat foot, k. Nock knee etc.

 

Q3. Define bow legs.

 

Ans. Bow legs are a wide gap between the knees when a person is standing with feet together. It can be observed easily when an individual walks or runs.

 

Q4. What is flat foot?

 

Ans. Flat foot is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity, there is no arc in the foot and the foot is completely flat, which may cause pain in the foot during running and walking.

 

Q5. Define the term Kyphosis.

 

Ans. Kyphosis is a deformity of the spine in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backbone curve or a decrease or a forward curve.

 

Q6. What is Lordosis?

 

Ans. Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. It is an increased forward curve in the lumber region. It creates problem in standing and walking. In Lordosis, the body seems to be stiff.

 

Q7. What is Scoliosis?

 

Ans. Scoliosis is a postural deformity of spine in which there may be one convexity either in left side or in right side in the spine. Sometimes, there may be two convexities in the spine. This type of deformity is also called ‘S’ curve.

 

Q8. What do you mean by spinal curvature deformities?

 

Ans. The deformities related to the spine are called spinal curvature deformities. For example: Hypnosis, Lordosis and Scoliosis are the deformities of spinal curvature.

 

Q9. What are the causes of round shoulders?

 

Ans. The causes of round shoulders are:

 

(a) Due to poor posture while working

(b) Faulty furniture

(c) Wrong habit of sitting / standing

(d) Carrying heavy load on shoulders

(e) By sleeping on one side 

 

Q10. What are the causes of knock knee?

 

Ans. The causes of knock knee are:

 

(a) Weakness of muscles and ligaments

(b)Overweight body

(c) Lack of balanced diet

(d) Lack of vitamin-D

 

Q11. List three advantages of maintaining a correct posture.

 

Ans. Three advantages of maintaining a correct posture are:

 

(a) We will have more energy.

(b) We will feel better.

(c) It will improve flexibility of our body.

 

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

 

Q1. A correct posture commands respect, Justify

 

Ans. For creating a good impression on other people so that you command respect, good appearance is a prerequisite, this good appearance, in term, depends on the posture of an individual. This leaves a good first impression on others. Good posture also contributes to grace and efficiency in movement, which will make other people appreciate and respect you. Confident, successful and assertive people have a good upright: and relaxed posture. Confidence gives you power and strength. Conversely, when our posture shows a slump, we will soon experience low confidence; we will feel tired, low on energy, sad and vulnerable. This will show to others and make them lose respect in us. 

 

Q2. What are the main causes of poor posture?

 

Ans. Causes of poor posture are:

 

(a) Injury when bone, ligament or muscle is injured, it weakens the support to that

(b)Disease causes the joints to lose their strength and mobility.

(c) Heredity Deformities like Kyphosis and flat foot are sometimes due to hereditary factors.

(d) Overload Over work or fatigue also results in poor posture.

(e) Lack of Exercise The maintenance of erect posture requires strength and endurance.

 

Q3. Explain any three advantages of correct posture.

 

Ans. Three advantages correct posture are:

 

1. Physical fitness can be achieved if you have good posture, Balance, coordination, flexibility etc. are the components of physical fitness. These can be attained easily by an individual who is having correct posture. 

2. Good posture provides good impression of your well-being. 

3. Correct posture reflects the alertness, activeness and wholesomeness of your personality. 

 

Q4. What are the causes of fat foot and corrective measures for this problem?

 

Ans. Causes of flat foot are:

 

(a) Heaviness of the body

(b)Standing for a long time

(c) Not doing physical exercises

(d) Use of poor quality footwear not having an arch.

 

Corrective Measures for flat foot are:

 

(a) Walk on sand

(b)Walking on wooden staircase

(c) Walking with weight on heels and toes

 

Q5. What are the causes round shoulders? Explain remedial measures required to

 

Ans. Causes of round shoulders are

(a) Due to poor posture in work

(b) Faulty furniture

(c) Wrong habit of sitting and standing

(d) Carrying heavy load on shoulders

(e) Remedial Measures

 

Q6. Mention the corrective exercises related to scoliosis.

 

Ans. The corrective exercises related to scoliosis are

(a) Performing Trikon asana, with proper technique.

(b)Stand elect with feet few inches apart. After that, raise the left heel and left hip, extend right and in, m arch overhead to the left. Press hand against the ribs on the left side.

(c) Lie down in prone position, ì. e., on the chest. Right arm should be upward and left arm at side. After that right, arm towards the left overhead. Press down with left hand and then slide the loft hip up.

 

Q7. Explain the correct posture of standing.

 

Ans. In standing position, both the heels of the feet should meet each other. Toes of the feet should be “3” to “4” apart. The whole body should be erect. Straight knees, chin inside, chest forward, belly backward and pressed inside with equal body weight on both feet. In this position, the complete body should be balanced. From the side line of the centre of gravity must pass through the ear, shoulders, hip, knee and ankle. In such a position, the muscles and ligament remain free of stress.

 

Q8. Explain the correct posture of sitting.

 

Ans. When we sit in a chair, our hips should be as far back in the chair as possible. Head, spinal column, shoulders and hips should be in straight line and erect. Legs should touch the ground and not in hanging position. Things should be in horizontal position. While we read, the book should be on table but the book should not be too far away or near the eyes. The approximate distance between book and eyes should be at least 30 cm. If we do not follow this rule, eyesight problem may occur.

 

Q9. Explain the correct posture of walking.

 

Ans. Correct walking is always commended everywhere and by everyone. It reflects the personality of an individual. It indicates inferiority complex if an individual walks with dropped neck and imbalanced steps, if someone walks with erect neck and chest out, it is an example of superiority complex. In fact, the best posture of walking is that the lines of the feet should be parallel to the line of direction. The heel of the feet should touch the ground and then weight should be transferred to the toes. It means, there should be heel-toe action. Walking should be efficient and graceful. Smoothness is essential in walking if we adopt wrong posture of walking, we may get fatigued at the earliest.

 

Q10. Explain the causes of kyphosis and Lordosis.

 

Ans. Kyphosis is caused by malnutrition, illness, crowd, deficiency of pure air, insufficient exercise, rickets, carrying heavy loads on shoulders, unsuitable furniture, weak muscles, shyness among girls and habit of doing work by learning forward etc.

 

Generally imbalanced diet, improper environment, improper development of muscles, obesity and diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscle are such causes which result in Lordosis, In addition to these causes, not performing exercise and taking excessive food are also major causes of Lordosis.

 

Q11. Discuss the causes of knock knees and bow legs.

 

Ans. Generally, the lack of balanced diet specially ‘vitamin D’. Calcium and phosphorus is the main cause of knock knees. It may also be due to rickets. Chronic illness, obesity, flat foot and carrying heavy weight in early age may be other possible causes of knock knees.

 

The main cause of bow legs is the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in bones. Long bones of legs become soft, hence they are bent outward. The chances of bow legs also increases when children become overweight. This deformity may be due to the deficiency of vitamin ‘D’. Improper way of walking and forcing the babies to walk at very early age may also lead to bow legs.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

 

Q1. Mention the corrective exercise related to knock knees and bow legs.

 

Ans. Corrective Exercise related to knock knees:

 

1. Horse riding is one of the best exercises for correction of knock knees.

2. Keep a pillow b/w the knees and stand straight for some time. Both the feet should touch each other.

3. Use of walking calipers may be beneficial.

4. Perform Padmasana and Gomukhasana regularly.

 

Corrective Exercise Related to Bow Legs:

 

1. Stand erect with feet together. Wrap a soft piece of cloth on both legs at knee level. Tighten it with the help of a partner. Try to squat as far as possible. Hold that position of squat for some time. Come up and repeat it 4 to 6 times.

2. Walk for some distance on the inner edge of the feet.

3. Walk by bending the toes inward.

 

Q2. Mention the corrective exercise related to round shoulders and flat foot.

 

Ans. Corrective Exercise Related to Round Shoulders:

 

1. Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction for some time.

2. Hold the horizontal bar for some time regularly.

3. Perform chakrasana and dhanurasana for some time.

 

Corrective Exercise Related to Flat Foot:

 

1. Jumping on toes for some time.

2. Perform rope skipping.

3. Perform up and down the heels.

4. Walking on toes.

5. Sit down properly. Try to quip small wads of paper with your toes. These pieces of paper should be picked up by forcefully gapping with toes.

 

Q3. Briefly discuss the deformities of spinal curvature.

 

Ans. These deformities are related to spine. These deformities are caused by carrying excessive weight beyond capacity. In another way, we can say that work muscles cause the formation of spinal curvature. The normal lumber spine is characterized by a moderate interior hypertension curve, when viewed laterally. Although there is no absolute standard for the determination of the degree an extent of the anterior convexity of the normal lumber curve. There are three types of spinal deformities.

 

(a) Kyphosis 

(b) Lordosis

(c) Scoliosis

 

(a) Kyphosis: Kyphosis implies an increase or exaggeration of a backward or posterior curve or a decrease or reversal of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back. Depression of chest is common in Kyphosis.

 

(b) Lordosis: Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. In fact, it is an increased forward curve in the lumber region. It creates problem in standing and walking. The body seems to be stiff. The individual feels shame and inferior. Lordosis can be corrected in early stage.

 

(c) Scoliosis: Postural adaptation of the spine in lateral direction is called scoliosis. Scoliosis means bending, twisting or rotating. In fact, there are sideways curves and may be called scoliosis curves. These are defined in terms of their commodities. They are identified as either convexity right or right convexity. A simple or single curve to the left or convexity left is commonly called a ‘C’ curve. Scoliotic curves may be found in ‘S’ shape.

 

Q4. Mention the corrective exercise related to Kyphosis.

 

Ans. 1. Lie on back, i.e., in supine position with knees drawn up and feet flat on the ground. Both hands should be at sides. Then move your arms sideways in horizontal position. Repeat the exercise at least 10 times.

 

2. Lie down in prone position, i.e. on chest with hands on your hips. After that raise your head and trunk several inches from the ground. Your chin should be in during this exercise. Hold this position for some time and then come back in previous position. Repeat this exercise at least for 10 times.

 

3. Sit in a normal position, with a stick held in horizontal position over head, hands well-spread. After that lower the stick and then raise it behind head and shoulders, while performing this exercise, keep your head and trunk straight. Repeat this exercise 10 to 12 times.

 

Q5. Mention the corrective exercise related to Lordosis.

 

Ans. 1. Lie down in prone position, with hands under abdomen. Then keep hips and shoulders down, press hands up on abdomen and raise lower back.

 

2. Bend knees forward while allowing hips to bend back behind, keeping back straight and knees painted in same direction as feet. Descent unit thighs are just parallel to floor. Extend knees and hips unit legs are straight. Come back in starting position and then repeat the same.

 

3. Lunge forward with knee on a wall: Take position of the foot beyond knee. Place both hands on knee. Straighten hips of rear leg by pushing hip forward and hold stretch. Repeat with opposite side.

 

4. Sit on chair with feet wide apart. Bend and position your shoulders between knees. Then reach to the floor under back of chair. Hold this position for some duration.

 

Q6. Mention the corrective exercise related to scoliosis.

 

Ans. 1. Lie down in prone position, i.e., on the chest. Right arms should be upward and left arm at side. After that move right arm towards the left overhead, press down with left hand and then slide the left hip up.

 

2. Stand erect with feet few inches apart. After that raise the left heel and left hip. Extend right arm in an arch overhead to the left. Press left hand against the ribs on the left side.

 

3. Stand in erect position with feet several inches apart. Keep left hands finger tips on left shoulder and bend the upper body in right side if there is an opposite ‘C’ curve in the spine. But if there is no opposite ‘C’ curve means if there is ‘C’ curve, bend the upper body to left side.

 

The tips of the fingers of right hand should be on right shoulder. Repeat the exercise for some time as per the ‘C’ curve.

 

Q7. Explain any five common posture deformities.

 

Ans. (a) Kyphosis: Kyphosis implies an increase or exaggeration of a backward or posterior curve or a decrease or reversal of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back. Depression of chest is common in hypnosis.

 

(b) Lordosis: Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. In fact, it is an increased forward curve in the lumber region. It creates problem in standing and walking. The body seems to be stiff. The individual feels shame and inferior. Lordosis can be corrected in early stage.

 

(c) Scoliosis: Postural adaptation of the spine in lateral direction is called scoliosis. Scoliosis mean bending, twisting or rotating. In fact, these are sideways curve and may be called scoliotic curves. These are defined in terms of their communities. They are identified, as either convexity right or right convexity. A simple or single curve to the left or convexity left is commonly called a ‘C’ curve. Scoliotic curves may be in ‘S’ shape.

 

(d) Flat foot: Our feet act as the base of support for the body in standing, walking, running and jumping. Flat foot is commonly found among newly born babies but it becomes a postural deformity if it still persists during late childhood. It is easy to observe whether a person has foot deformity or not. Dip your feet in water and walk on the floor. If there is not a proper arch of foot prints on the floor then you have the deformity of flat foot.

 

(e) Bow legs: ‘Bow legs’ is also postural deformity. Approximately, it is opposite to knock knee position. If there is wide gap between the knees when standing with feet together, the individual has bow legs or genu varum. In this deformity, knees are widely apart. There remains a wide gap between knees when a bow legged person keeps his feet together. This deformity, can be observed easily, when an individual walks or runs.

 

Q8. Mention any five advantages of correct posture.

 

Ans. 1. Change in mental attitude: Posture usually affects in the outlook, happiness, self-confidence, determination of an individual. Self- confidence, happiness and determination are the result of correct posture and on the contrary, anxiety, unhappiness and pessimism are the outcomes of bad posture. These traits change the mental attitude of a person towards life correct posture always boosts up self-confidence and self-esteem.

 

2. Lessens the fatigue: Correct posture lessens the fatigue because all the system of an individual’s body perform their function more efficiently. An individual feels less fatigue due to less stress on muscles and joints.

 

3. Improves speech: Correct postures help to improve speech because it gives freedom to diaphragm. If there is too much stress on diaphragm, an individual cannot speak clearly and efficiently.

 

4. Grace and efficiency of movement: Physical posture plays a vital role in the field of sports and games. Sports and games involve various types of movement. Walking, running, jumping and throwing depend upon the abilities of movements. An athlete requires a variety of efficient movements. The apex marks can be achieved in the field of sports if movement of the sportsman are efficient and graceful. The balance and coordination depends upon physical posture. Without correct posture, grace as well as efficiency of movement can’t be attained.

 

5. Increases concentration and thinking ability: If you are breathing properly it definitely increases the thinking ability. As a matter of fact our brain requires 20% of 02 to perform its job efficiently. If you got more 02 in brain, it will lead to more thoughts and ideas.

 

Q9. Explain the causes, precautions and remedies of knock knees.

 

Ans. Knock knees is one of the major postural deformities. In this deformity, both the knees, knock or touch each other in normal standing position. The gap between ankles goes on increasing. The individual faces difficulty in walking and running. He cannot walk or run in a proper manner. Owing to this deformity, knock-kneed people cannot be good players and they are not selected even in defence services.

 

Causes: Generally, the lack of balanced diet, specially vitamin D. Calcium and phosphorus is the main cause of knock knees. It may also be due to rickets. Chronic illness, obesity, flat foot and carrying heavy weight in early ages may be other possible causes of knock knees.

 

Precautions:

 

1. Balanced diet should be taken.

2. Babies should not be forced to walk at very early age.

 

Remedies:

 

1. Horse riding is the best exercise for remedification of this deformity.

2. Perform Padmasana and Gomukhasana regularly for some time.

3. Cod liver oil may be beneficial in reducing for some time.

4. Keep a pillow between the knees and stand erect for some time.

5. Use of walking calipers may also be beneficial.

6. In several cases, consult the doctor.

 

Q10. Mention the causes, precautions and remedies of Bow legs.

 

Ans. ‘Bow legs’ is a postural deformity. Approximately, it is opposite to knock knees position. If there is wide gap between the knees when standing with feet together, the individual has bow leg or genu varum. In this deformity, knees are widely apart. There remains a wide gap between knees when a bow legged person keeps his feet together. This deformity, can be observed easily, when an individual walks or runs.

 

Causes: The main cause of bow legs is the deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in bones. Long bones of legs become soft, hence they are bent outward. The chances of bow legs also increase when children become overweight. This deformity may be due to the deficiency of vitamin D. Improper way of walking and forcing the babies to walk at very early age may also lead to bow legs.

 

Precautions:

 

1. Don’t let the children be overweight.

2. Don’t force the babies to walk at very early age.

3. Balance diet should be given to children. There should not be any deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the diet.

 

Remedies:

 

1. Vitamin D should be taken in required amount.

2. Balanced diet should be taken.

3. Bow legs can be corrected by walking on the inner edge of feet.

4. Walking by bending the toes inward.

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!
Inline
Inline