CBSE Class 12 Phy. Edu. Unit-5-Children & Sports

Unit 5 - Children and Sports

 

Introduction

 

Children and Sports are closely related to each other. Sports are good and enjoyable for children to enhance their physical activity if they take part in organized sports and games. However, the sports activities should be appropriate for the children. Children have innate tendency to take parts in sports. They cannot remain away from sports activities whatever the circumstances are, yet the matter of fact is that sports activities should be appropriate for the children and they should be engaged in such sports which are according to their developmental abilities.

 

Motor Development in Children 

 

Motor development is the progressive change in movement throughout the life cycle. It is a combination of physical fitness which consists of strength, speed, flexibility and endurance along with large muscles, small muscles, bones and nervous system of body. As a matter of fact, the ability to move is essential to human development. Various motor movements or motor skills are essential for everyday life activities such as sitting, walking, running, climbing, catching or holding, jumping, skipping or throwing etc.

 

Motor development in children can be divided into two parts:

 

Gross Motor Development: Gross motor development is the development of large muscles in the child’s body such as sitting, walking, running, climbing etc.

 

Fine Motor Development: Fine motor development is the development of the small muscles of the body especially in the small movement of the fingers and hands. For example, discus, polo, catching a cricket ball, smashing a volleyball etc.

 

Motor development starts after birth and follows progressive and sequential patterns from early childhood (in infants), middle childhood and late childhood stages.

 

Development at Early Stage (2 to 6 years): The motor development during this period takes place sharply. It is also known as the preschool years. In this period a child becomes, perfect in various fundamental movements such as running, jumping, throwing and acquiring the ability to unite or combine these movements.

 

In this period children’s stride length increases and they develop a more mature running pattern. During this period, proficiency in climbing on ladders becomes efficient. They can hop and gallop skillfully. The development at the end of early childhood achieves a satisfactory level so the systematic training in various sports such as gymnastics and swimming can be started because their basic movements like rolling, hanging, pushing and pulling etc. become efficient. They can unite these movements efficiently under changing and difficult conditions. They become efficient in various movement combinations such as running and jumping, catching and throwing and running and throwing etc.

 

Development at Middle Childhood: In this period children are active and agile and they are keen to engage in different physical activities. They are very eager to compete with children of the same age group. Most of the children, during this period, achieve mature patterns of fundamental motor skills. During this period, children become efficient in movement compiling, movement precision and movement flow. Their speed abilities develop rapidly and co-ordinative abilities also show a higher level of development.

 

Development at Late Childhood: In this stage of childhood gross and fine motor development activities are performed. Boys and girls are able to compete evenly. Children of such age-group ready to learn strategies and more complex play combinations. Running and jumping movements, qualitatively as well quantitatively develop rapidly than in the middle childhood period.

 

Factors affecting Motor Development

 

(1) Clean, safe and natural environment is healthy and good for motor development activities.

(2) Performing regular physical activities, enhances the motor development rapidly. However, the physical activities must be according to the capabilities of children.

(3) Those children, who do not perform or practice physical activities regularly, their motor development also becomes slow. If children do not perform even minor activities, their motor development also becomes much slow and that is why they take a long time for motor development.

(4) Children get genes from parents as heredity, hence motor development follows the same pattern as their parents.

(5) Obesity and overweight affect the motor development of children negatively. It means that children who are overweight or obese do not feel enough enthusiasm for any motor activity and may even find it uncomfortable to perform it. Motor development in such children takes place very slowly which results in taking more time to perform motor movement.

(6) Nutrition also affects the motor development. Nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory motor development is dependent upon nutrition. If children get nutritious food they get stronger which ultimately leads to good motor development. If children do not get proper nutrition they are found to be less energetic which results in slow motor development.

(7) Certain postural deformities in children affect their motor development. Postural deformities, flat foot, knock-knees and bow legged etc. create obstacles in the path of motor development of children. In the absence of postural deformities the motor development in children takes place at a faster rate.

(8) Disability and disease affect motor development. It reduces perfection in motor skills whereas healthy person gains faster motor development.

(9) Not taking proper rest and relaxation affect motor development in children.

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

 

Q1. What do you mean by motor development?

 

Ans. Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment. 

 

Q2.How many stages of motor development are there in children?

 

Ans. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below:

 

1. Infancy or infancy hood 

2. Early childhood 

3. Later childhood

 

Q3. What do you mean by gross motor development?

 

Ans. Gross motor development involves the development of large muscles in the child’s body such as sitting, walking, running, climbing etc.

 

Q4. What do you mean by fine motor development?

 

Ans. It involves the small muscles of the body specially in the small movement of the fingers and hands. For example, holding of javelin, discuss. Pole, catching a cricket ball, smashing a volley ball and gymnastic exercises with or without apparatus etc.

 

Q5. What are the types of motor skills?

 

Ans. There are two types of motor skills:

 

(a) Gross motor skills

(b) Fine motor skills

 

Q6.Write two benefits of regular exercise.

 

Ans. Benefits of regular exercise are:

 

(a) Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risk of heart diseases.

(b) Improves physical wellness.

 

Q7. Define food supplements.

 

Ans. Food supplements, also known as dietary supplements, are meant to improve your diet by providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial substances in the form of capsules, soft gels, caps and tablets. 

 

Q8. How can exercise reduce blood sugar levels?

 

Ans. Exercise reduces blood sugar levels by preventing sugar from accumulating in the blood by triggering muscles to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. This can reduce a person's risk of developing diabetes.

 

Q9. Write some disadvantages of food supplements.

 

Ans. Some disadvantages of Food supplements are:

(a) Liver damage

(b) Blurred vision

(c) Headache

(d) Bone pain

(e) Swelling, drowsiness and nausea 

 

Q10. What do you mean by weight training?

 

Ans. Weight training refers to the exercise phase of the activity where weight in the form of bar-bells and dumb-bells are used to condition and alter the sizes of various segments of the body.

 

Q11. Mention any two advantages of weight training.

 

Ans. 1. Weight training helps in increasing bone density. 

2. Weight training is also advantageous for reducing stress and tension. 

 

Q12. What are the disadvantages of unsupervised weight training?

 

Ans. while performing unsupervised weight training, there is a risk of getting injured if you are not able to perform the required number of repetitions, but keep on trying. If flexibility exercises are not carried on simultaneously with weight training, it will reduce the flexibility of your body also.

 

Q13. What do you mean by quality of life?

 

Ans. Quality of life means how you live your life, what type of healthy you are having. If you are healthy and enjoying your life, it can be said that you have a good quality of life.

 

Q14. How can the minimum muscular strength for children be assessed?

 

Ans. we can use Kraus-Weber Tests to assess minimum muscular strength for children between 9 and 12 years of age. These tests don't require sophisticated equipment and are much easier to administer than traditional tools. 

 

Q15. How does exercise control weight and strengthen bones?

 

Ans. Regular exercise controls weight by burning the excess calories gained by consuming food. Exercise takes the fat away and removes the excess weight. Exercise also strengthens bones by increasing the bone density, making them stronger

 

 

Short Answer Type questions (3 Marks)

 

Q. What types of body movements does an infant start in the early stages of life?

 

Ans. The following types of body movements are started by the infant:

 

(a) Arm is extended in front of eyes on the side to which the head is turned, other arm remains flexed.

(b) Lifts one foot after another in stepping response.

(c) Spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger.

(d) Lifts self by arms when prone.

(e) Rolls from side to back.

(f) Crawls

 

Q. Enlist the basic movements of early childhood in a baby.

 

Ans. This period is also known as preschool age and the movements during this period are:

(a) Ball handling,

(b)Fine eye-hand coordination,

(c) Walking leading to running,

(d) Good control over running.

(e) Climbing proficiency using ladders.

 

Q. Can endurance influences motor development of children?

 

Ans. Yes, endurance influences motor development of children. Endurance is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. A child with poor endurance might be able to step up one stair but not climb a flight of stairs. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.

 

Q. Define motor development in 6-12 year old children.

 

Ans. After the age of 6 years, it becomes increasingly difficult to describe changes and differences in motor skills development of a child. The following characteristics are evident:

 

(a) Teenagers are more subtle and are often to fine motor skills only.

(b) By the age of one year, eye-hand coordination has developed to being very good.

(c) Growth is relatively slow.

(d) This stage is terminated by the onset of puberty.

(e) Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.

(f) Links can be made to physical developments.

 

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 marks)

 

Q1. What do you mean by motor development? Explain the motor development during childhood.

 

Ans. Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment. In simple words, motor development means the development of movement and various motor abilities from birth till death. In other words, motor development is the progressive change in movement throughout the life cycle.

 

1. Early childhood (2 to 6 years): The period of early childhood starts from 2nd year and continues till 6th year. The motor development during the period takes place rapidly. It is also known as the preschool years. In this period a child becomes, perfect in various fundamental movements such as running, jumping, throwing and acquiring the ability to unite or combine these movements. In this period children’s stride length increases and they develop a more mature running pattern.

 

2. Middle childhood (7 to 10 years): The period of middle childhood starts from 7th year and continues upto the 10th year. In this period children become active and agile. They have strong desire to engage in various physical movements and activities. Children during this period have desire to compete with children of their own age. They also have an urge to improve upon their previous performance. During this period, most of the children achieve mature patterns of fundamental motor skills.

 

3. Late childhood (11 to 12 years): The period of late childhood begins from 11th year and continues upto 12th year or till the beginning of sexual maturation process. During this period, girls are temporarily taller and heavier than boys because of the earlier onset of puberty. Strength begins to differ but the differences are small. Boys and girls are able to compete evenly. Most of the children are master to most intricate or complex motor skills

 

Q2. Enumerate about the motor development in early childhood.

 

Ans. The period of early childhood starts from 2nd year and continues till 6th year. The motor development during this period takes place rapidly. It is also known as the preschool years. In this period a child becomes, perfect in various fundamental movements such as running, jumping, throwing and acquires the ability to unite or combine these movements. In this period children’s stride length increases and they develop a more mate running pattern. During this period, proficiency in climbing on ladders becomes efficient. They can hop and gallop skillfully. The motor development at the end of early childhood achieves a satisfactory level so the systematic training in various sports such as gymnastics and swimming can be started because their basic movement like rolling, hanging, pushing and pulling etc. become efficient. They can write these movements efficiently under changing and difficult conditions. They become efficient in various movement combinations such as running and jumping, catching and throwing and running and throwing etc. However, they become efficient in such movement but even these competitions should be avoided at this stage.

 

Q3. Elucidate the motor development in middle childhood.

 

Ans. The period of middle childhood starts from 7th year and continues upto the 10th years. In this period children become active and agile. They have strong desire to engage in various physical movement and activities. Children during this period have desire to complete with children of their own age. They also have an urge to improve upon his previous performance. During this period, most of the children achieve mature patterns of fundamental motor skill. Their posture and balance become better. They try to become efficient in the variation of movements which they had already learnt. In fact, the same movements are performed differently for different aims such as jumping for distance or height and throwing for distance, height etc. They become efficient in movement coupling, movement precision and movement flow. The speed abilities develop at a faster rate. Coordinate abilities also show a higher level of development in this age group, whereas flexibility develops at very slow rate. During this period, rules should be flexible, instruction time should be short and there should be minimum competitions. Stress should be given on movement correction.

 

Q4. Explain the motor development in late childhood.

 

Ans. The period of late childhood begins from list year and continues up to 12th year or till the beginning of sexual maturation process. During this period girls are temporarily taller and heavier than boys because of the earlier onset of puberty. Strength begins to differ but the differences are small. Boys and girls are able to compete evenly. Most of the children are master to most intricate or complex motor skills. They are ready to learn strategies and more complex play combinations. Running and jumping movements, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, develop at a faster rate than in the middle childhood period. Coaches or teachers of physical education should continue to encourage skill development with an increasing stress on strategies and tactics.

 

Q5. Explain any two factors affecting motor development.

 

Ans. 1. Nutrition is also liable to affect the motor development. Indeed, nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory motor development is dependent upon nutrition. If children get nutritious food they get stronger which ultimately leads to good motor development. On the other hand, if children do not get proper nutrition they are found to be less energetic because their motor development takes place slowly.

 

2. Postural deformities in children definitely affects their motor development. Any postural deformity viz., spinal curvature deformities, flat foot, knock-knees and bow legged etc. creates hindrance in the path of motor development of children. In the absence of postural deformities the motor development in children takes place at a faster rate.

 

Q6. Elaborate any three physiological benefits of exercise on children.

 

Ans. There are various physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children which are described below:

 

1. Exercise builds strong bones. As a matter of fact, exercise increases bone density which helps in preventing osteoporosis. If regular exercise is not performed, the bones usually lose their density, become weak, fragile and porous. Hence exercise is beneficial because it helps in strengthening the bones.

 

2. Exercise helps in motor development of infants and children at a faster rate which ultimately helps in making fine movements in later life. By performing exercise in early age the movements of muscles become efficient and smooth. It can also be said that their movements become more attractive.

 

3. place at a faster rate, so for proper growth and development, digestive process should be efficient. Research studies indicate and exercise is beneficial for improving the digestive process. It removes constipation, helps in making the absorption of food efficient. Food is also digested properly because glands also start working efficiently.

 

Q7. Discuss the precaution for taking food supplements.

 

Ans. Before taking food supplements you should take following precautions:

 

1. First of all ensure that there is a lack of essential nutrients in a child. Consult the doctor whether the child needs to take food supplements or not.

 

2. Before purchasing an individual should ensure that it is free from preservatives, contains no fillers and does not contain any added sugar.

 

3. Food supplements may create harm if they are taken in excessive dosage specially the minerals and fat soluble vitamins which can be accumulated in the body. Some of the food supplements may cause harm due to their rapid absorption in a short period of time.

 

4. Don’t pay heed to the words of salesman or advertisements which claim that these supplements will improve the child’s brain.

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!
Inline
Inline