Note-Making & Summarising

Note-Making & Summarizing

How to make notes?

1. Read the passage carefully and thoroughly
2.While reading the passage, underline the key-sentences. It will help you in forming the title and sub-titles.
3.Make a rough note of the main points and give them a logical sequence.
4.Use any format you like but it should depend on the theme of the passage. A little practice will make you adept in note-making.

Always remember

1. They should be short and to the point.

2. They should have all the important and relevant information.
3. Information should be systematically divided and sub-divided.
4. Use universally recognized symbols and abbreviations wherever necessary and provide key to the abbreviations.
5. Main title should be short. Avoid a long sentence as a title unless it happens to be a common saying or a
    proverb. It should reflect the spirit of the passage.
6. Notes must be written in points only. They should be listed one under the other and numbered properly.

Always avoid 

1. Avoid the use of a full and complete sentence.
2. Do not lift portions of the passage to form notes.
3. Do not include irrelevant piece of information in your notes. 

Mechanics of Note-Making

(a) Use of Abbreviations

(i) Capitalized first letter of words : UNO, CBSE, NCERT etc.
(ii) arithmetic symbols: > <, , kg., % etc.
(iii) Commonly used:  sc., govt., Eng., Sans. in newspapers, magazines etc.
(iv) Invented: First and last few letters of the words with a dot at the end (edul., poln., popn. mfg.).

Note: ln case a student uses his/her invented contraction, he/she is required to provide key for the same as:

prblm. = problem
trp’nt. = transparent
dprsd. = depressed

Notes / Points of students may vary from one another but one should ensure that the main ideas/views are covered.

(b) Proper indentation

Notes:
Title: Geographical Location of India

Sub-title/heading____________
    (a)___________________
    (b)___________________
    (c)___________________
          (i)______________ 
          (ii)______________
Sub-title/heading____________
    (a)___________________
    (b)___________________
    (c)___________________
       
Sub-title/heading___________
    (a)___________________
         (i)_______________
         (ii)______________
    (b)___________________
    (c)___________________

Key to Abbreviations

1. wrtg.         =      writing
2. U.K.          =     United Kingdom
3.______       =     ____________
4.______       =     ___________

Summarising: (80 Words)

Students are required to write a paragraph using the main points listed in the notes. Complete sentences are used. They are logically and cohesively linked together with the help of suitable linkers. Do not use abbreviations and symbols.

Marking Scheme

For Class XI: 08 Marks

For Class XII: 10 Marks

1. Heading / Title: 1 Mark
2. Abbreviation / Contraction: 1 Mark (Minimum four)
3. Notes with Sub-Headings:   3

4. Summary: 3 Marks (Class XI) & 5 Marks (Class XII)
(Standard word limit for Summary is 80 words)

Unseen Passages for Note-Making (Solved)

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The heart’s job is to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of Oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells like only four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and death comes to the entire body.

2. The heart is a specialized muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle.

3. At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers 2/5 oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lung to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs – in the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber the left atrium. When this chamber is filled it forces the blood through the valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta and sent round the body by way of arteries.

4. Heart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the pacemaker. If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become un-coordinated.
5. Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953 all this changed after twenty years of work, Dr. John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.

6. In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart – lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings & Sub headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum 4). Use a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

Notes:

Title: Heart

1. Function of Heart
(a) Vital for living
(b) never stops wrkg.
(c) Supplies oxygen rich blood to diff. Parts of the body.

2. Structure of the heart
(a) divided into 4 chambers connected by valves
(b) Blood purified in the lungs.
(c) Arteries carry pure blood to diff. Part of the body.

3. Heart disease – causes
(a) Weak muscles
(b) Defective valves
(c) Defective pace maker

4. History of open heart Surgery
(a) HLM invented by Dr. Gibbon in 1953
(b) Enabled open heart surgery
(c) Limitation
     (i) can be used only for a few hrs. at a time.
     (ii) damages BC

Key to Abbreviations

1. Diff. = Different
2. HLM = Heart Lung Machine
3. BC = Blood Cells
4. hrs. = Hours
5. Wrkg. = Working

Summary

The heart is a vital organ of the body, which never stops working. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into four chambers inter connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arteries carry it to different parts of the body. Heart disease has various cause such as weak muscles defective valves or a defective pace maker. The era of open-heart surgery began in 1953 when Dr. Gibbon developed the heart lung machine. Replacement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible.

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

Everyone needs a holiday, both to relax and to have a change of environment. The holiday makers feel relaxed and refreshed at the end of the holiday and look forward to the resumption of their duties, be it at school, office or factories, with renewed vigour. This is the reason why all establishments grant their employees annual leave. With the end of the Academic year the schools and universities grant their pupils a long holiday during mid-summer. This will last until early September when the new school term starts. Of course the parents will like to take advantage of this and take their leave to coincide with the children’s vacation. This has become a traditional holiday season in most European countries particularly in England.

With the coming of August, the traditional holiday season in Britain reaches its peak point and most of the holiday resorts are packed to capacity. In order to avoid the crowd, some prefer to take their holiday a little earlier if facilities so warrant. Those who have already taken their holidays can console themselves not only with reflections on the happy days spent in the country, at the seaside or abroad, but also with the thought that holiday expenses are over for the year and that by taking an earlier holiday they have missed the August rush.

The main thing, of course, is the weather and that it would be hazardous to prophesy. But whatever the weather is like, the essence of a holiday for most is the carefree atmosphere in which it can be enjoyed. “Take all you need but leave your worries behind” is the sound advice for the holiday maker. Private worries are not always easy to escape from. However, even the pessimist would admit that for the moment things appear brighter than they have been.

Holiday time is surely a time for shedding serious pre-occupations and seeking the pleasures that appeal to us. It is true that we may not always succeed in finding them, indeed there are people who maintain that the great thing about a holiday is that it gives you an ampler appreciation of home comforts – a view no doubt more widely held among the elderly than you.

(а) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. And also suggest a suitable title.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made.

Title: Importance of Holidays

1. Need for Holidays

(a) To relax
(b) Change of Environ.
(c) Resuming work after renewed vigour

2. Holidays in institutions

(a) Long holidays during summer
(b) Parents coincide leave with vac.
(c) tradl. holiday season in Britain
(d) Resorts packed-preference to seaside etc.

3. Constituents of a Holiday

(a) Weather conditions
(b) Carefree atmosphere.
(c) Seeking pleasure etc.

Key to Abbreviations

Environ. = environment
Edl. = Educational
Insts. = Institutions
Vac. = Vacations
Trail. = Traditional

Summary

We need holidays to relax and change for the environment as these help in resuming work after, renewed vigour. In educational institutions students are granted long mid-summer holidays. Parents too coincide their leaves with these holidays. In Britain it is a traditional season of holidays with the outset of August. The holidays are packed so they prefer towards seaside or go abroad. The weather conditions are fine and there is a carefree atmosphere. It is time to seek pleasure and for the elderly it may even mean appreciating home comforts.

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease post-prandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility. The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is much desirable.

Title: Importance of Dietary Fibres  

1. Dietary Fibres

(a) Indigestible carbohydrates
(b) Present in plant foods
(c) 40 gram per day intake desirable

2. Foodstuffs rich in Dietary Fibres

(a) Cereals and grains
(b) Fruits with seeds
(c) Citrus fruits
(d) Green leafy veg.
(e) Legumes etc.

3. Impacts on human body

(a) Pass through the gastrointestinal tract.
(b) Add bulk to the diet
(c) Incr. transit time in gut.
(d) Some fibres may ferment in colon.
(e) Decrease release-time of ingested food in colon.
(f) Main, energy intake

4. Positive Effects

(a) Prevent coronary heart dis.
(b) Beer, chol. level
(c) The Fenugreek (Methi) seeds
(i) Contain 40% gum
(ii) Decrease blood glucose
(iii) Decrease choles. level
(d) Gums & Pectin fibres
(i) Decrease aft. meals glue, level in blood
(e) Prevent constipation
(f) Controls obesity, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries & gall stones

5. Adverse Effects

(a) Colon cancer
(b) Nutritional defi.
(c) Bind trace metals & affect nutri.

Key to Abbreviations

nutri. = nutritional
defi. = deficiency
diety. = dietary
veg. = vegetables
chol. = cholesterol

Summary

Dietary fibres are indigestible carbohydrates and at least, 40 grams per day intake of dietary fibres is desirable. Cereals and grains, fruits with seeds, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and legumes etc., are some rich sources of dietary fibres. It leaves a remarkable effect on human body. Dietary fibres pass through the gastro intestinal tract easily and thus add bulk to the diet. Whereas, some fibres may ferment in colon, decreasing release time of ingested food; others may increase transit time in gut. This system maintains energy intake and controls obesity. The proper intake of required dietary fibres prevent coronary heart diseases, decrease cholesterol level, prevent constipation, and controls irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones. More especially, gums and pectin fibres decrease after meals glucose levels in blood. Improper or insufficient intake of dietary fibres may result into colon cancer or nutritional deficiency.

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

Fasting is said to bring a host of benefits provided if done under medical supervision. Doctors explain how to go about it. Food is to the body what fuel is to a motor vehicle. It provides energy, helps repair and rejuvenation and confers many other benefits. A lot of research has been done and is being done on fasting. When one fasts, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed. While fasting, the natural process of toxin excretion continues while influx of new toxins is reduced. The energy usually used for digestion is redirected to immune function and cell growth. Fasting helps you heal with greater speed, cleanses your liver, kidneys and colon, purifies your blood, helps you lose excess weight and water, flushes out toxins, clears the eyes and tongue and cleanses the breath.

Another research says fasting, even occasionally, helps in de-toxification. Through fasting we restrict digestive activity and so energy is utilised to cleanse different systems. Fasting improves metabolism, sharpens the senses, calms the mind, helps lose weight, improves general immunity, improves concentration and mental clarity. Fasting, if understood and done under supervision, has tremendous benefits and impacts one at various planes; mental, emotional, physical and spiritual. Specifically it serves as an aid to effective detoxification, helps in repair and rejuvenation, offers rest to the gastro-intestinal system and promotes mobilisation of excess fat.

The crucial point to note is the difference between fasting and starvation. Research suggests there are major health benefits to calorie restriction. Among other things it slows down the ageing process. According to the US National Academy of Sciences, other benefits include stress resistance, increased insulin sensitivity and increased lifespan.

Glucose is the body’s primary fuel source and it is essential for the brain’s functioning. When denied glucose for more than 4r-8 hours, the body converts glycogen stored in the liver into a usable form of fuel and supplements it with small amounts of protein. This will last for up to 12 hours before the body turns to glycogen stored in muscles. If glucose is still denied at this point, the body continues to use fat for as long as it is available. If the fast is not broken, starvation occurs, as the body begins to use protein for fuel. Death can occur if fasting is pursued to the point of complete starvation.

(а) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words using the notes made.

Title: Fasting v/s Starvation

1. Importance of food in life

(a) Fuel to a body
(b) Provides energy
(c) Helps repair & rejuvenation
(d) Many other benefits

2. Benefits of fasting

(a) Helps in de-toxification
(b) Dig. organs rest
(c) Body mech. cleansed
(d) Improves metabolism and increase insulin sensitivity
(e) Sharpens senses
(f) Calms mind & increases lifespan
(g) Helps lose weight
(h) Improves gen. imm.
(i) Improves concent. & mental clarity

3. Rules for fasting

(a) Need med. supervision
(b) Fast occasionally
(c) Diff. from starvation

4. Role of Glucose in body

(a) Primary fuel source
(b) Essn. for brain’s function
(c) Glycogen used during fasting
(i) Glycogen in liver used for upto 12 hrs. – glycogen in muscles
(ii) Fat in body works as glycogen

5. Fasting-starvation link

(a) Long fasting turns into starvation
(b) Complete starvation leads to death

Key to Abbreviation

dig. = digestive
gen. = general
concent. = concentration
mech. = mechanisms
imm. = immunity
essn. = essential

Summary

Food is very important in one’s life as it works like fuel to our body. It provides energy, helps repair and rejuvenation conferring many other benefits too. Simultaneously, fasting is said to bring a host of benefit, if done under medical supervision and occasionally. Its differentiation with starvation should be kept in mind. In fasting, the digestive organs rest so body mechanisms get cleansed. Fasting helps in de-toxification. It improves metabolism, increases insulin sensitivity, sharpens senses, calms mind, helps lose weight, improves general immunity, concentration and mental clarity, helps in healing at greater speed etc. By slowing down the ageing process, it makes one look younger and increases lifespan. It is the primary fuel source and is essential for brain functioning. Continued fasting for more than eight hours may be hazardous. Continuous fasting or starvation may lead to one’s death.

5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facets of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focused thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.
Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognizes fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focussed system will follow automatically.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

(а) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.

(b) Write a summary of the above in 80 words.

Title: Development of Concentration Level

1. Sitting at table for Studies

(a) Most frustrat’g job
(b) Thoughts wandering

2. Techniques to enhance concentration

(a) Examine various aspects of your physical and internal envn.
(b) Create conducive physical environment.
(c) Identify factors disabling to focus
(d) Plan studies away from noisy/disrupting places.

3. Distracting Environment

(a) Loud T.V.
(b) Blazing music
(c) Noisy neigh’d

4. Measures to focus attention and retention powers

(a) Activate only one sense at a time
(b) Place study table away from window
(c) Set your goal and fix your thoughts

5. Division of Time

(a) Study and rct’n
(b) Do uninteresting things first in order of preference and favourite things next.

6. Sitting schedule

(a) Shorter sittings
(b) Break with drink or hear’g music etc.
(c) Never exert yourself.

Key to Abbreviations

Frustrat’g = frustrating
Envn. = environment
Neigh’d = neighbourhood
Rct’n = Recreation
Hear’g = hearing

Summary

Creation of physical environment results in focusing of thoughts. Unpleasant noise shakes one’s concentration. A library is a suitable place for studies. If your attention is distracted, don’t activate more than two of your senses. You can surely not enjoy your studies while enjoying music. Keep your study table away from the window. Establish specific goals for a given time. Finish the unpleasant schedule before the pleasant one. Take periodical break for refreshment or recreation. Never over-exert or over-relax yourself. Concentration is gained through practice and patience.

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

Leadership does not exist without followership. A leader has to be accepted by the group which the former is supposed to lead. To gain acceptability the leader should cause an emotive impact on the group members.

The strength of character exhibited by leaders makes them dear to their followers. A leader is one who effectively inspires followers to achieve worthwhile things. What character of the leader motivates the followers? It is not pomp and show nor flattery nor sanctioning more incentives. Pomp and show creates a sense of awe and the leader is defied rather than emulated. Flattery is unrealistic, and cannot serve as a long term motivational tool. A leader’s style should be one that can be emulated by all irrespective of cadre, class and calibre. Simplicity in one’s day-to-day conduct is the only thing that can be adopted by all. When the leader is simple, he is counted as one belonging to the group of which he is the leader. That’s enough to motivate the people. Motivation is the innate quality that enables an individual or group, to contribute unlimitedly with limited means. It is the proud prerogative of enlightened human beings.

A leader needs to assume the role of a guide; quintessential of fulfilling the role is knowledgeability. Technical and administrative knowledge of the guide in balanced quantity and of right kind are essential. The technical knowledge is too vast to acquire by a leader. At beat he is either ‘Jack of all’ or ‘Master of few’. But he has to master the human relations aspect of administration in all detail. And when the leader is good at this his guidance is sought and accepted, then he fulfils the role of a guide. The leader is a negotiator within and outside the organisation.

The leader shapes people and moulds character. To achieve this the leader should maintain equanimity. Equanimity is keeping oneself poised and balanced at all times. A leader is simply great, if he can mould his followers with this frame of mind. He does this by his own example.

(а) Read the above passage and make notes in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words.

Title: Leadership

1. Leadership

(a) Lop-sided without followership
(b) Has emotive impact on followers

2. Qualities of a Leader

(a) strength of character
(b) Skill to inspire followers to achieve a goal
(c) Style—worthy of emu.

3. Disqualities of a Leader

(a) Pomp and show
(b) Flattery
(c) sanct’ng more incentives

4. Defects of Disqualities

(a) Pomp and show create a sense of awe
(b) Flattery is unrealistic and transitory
(c) Sanctioning more incentives makes the leader unpopular

5. Simplicity

(a) Makes one social
(b) Motivates both individuals and groups to contribute profusely

6. Leader as a Guide

(a) He serves as a nego’r. within and outside the orgn.
(b) shapes people and moulds character
(c) always great and mentally balnc’d

Key to Abbreviations

emu. = emulation
sanct’ng. = sanctioning
nego’r. = negotiator
Balnc’d. = balanced

Summary

A popular leader has a vast following. He has emotive impact on his followers. A true leader is strong in character. He has the skill to lead his followers to the desired goal. His style of working is worthy of emolution. Some disqualities e.g. pomp and show, love for flattery and sanctioning more incentives tarnish his position. They create a sense of awe and damage his image. Simplicity of conduct makes one social. It motivates the followers to contribute for a noble cause. A leader serves as a guide and negotiator. He shapes the people’s thoughts and moulds their character. He always proves himself mentally balanced.

——-xxXxx——-

33 thoughts on “Note-Making & Summarising”

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  4. I just wanted to know if a passage has 7 points then all 7 sub titles. Or for example 1 subtitle has two points and cover the 2 point also. Then the second subtitle to be numbered as 3 and below 3.1 and so on. If a numbered para 2 is omitted then it’s OK as the idea is covered in the first note. As there is more explanation of the same idea. This is very helpful. Thanks

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