Glimpse of the Past
Textual Questions and Exercises
Q1. Look at picture 1 and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer? Who else do you see in this picture?
Ans. The original song is “Ae mere watan ke logon….” The singer is Lata Mangeshkar. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Rani Laxmi Bai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi are also seen in the picture.
Q2. In Picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s “superior weapons”?
Ans. The company’s superior weapons mean all their wits, strength, rules and regulations.
Q3. Who is an artisan? Why do you think the artisans suffered? (Picture 3)
Ans. An artisan is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative. The artisans suffered because the British were extracting very high taxes from them, which ruined them economically. Moreover, machine-manufactured goods imported from Britain were sold extensively, which ruined the business of the artisans’ hand-made goods.
Q4. Which picture, according to you, reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt?
Ans. Picture 7 ‘The Sparks’ reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt.
Q5. Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?
Ans. Yes, the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757.
Q6. How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?
Ans. The Indian princes were constantly at war with each other. They called the English merchants to help them in their fights. The people had no peace due to such constant fights. The rivalries helped the East India Company subdue the Indian princes one by one.
Q7. Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.
Ans. According to Ram Mohan Roy, “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions, but the essence of every religion is the same.”
Q8. In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?
Ans. The British officers exploited Indians in many ways. They imposed heavy taxes on Indians farmers and reduced import duty on goods manufactured in England and imported to India. Even they cut the thumbs of expert artisans.
Q9. Name these people
(i)The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.)
(i) Kunwar Singh
(ii) Ram Mohan Roy
(iv) Maulvi Ahmedulla of Faizabad and Peshwa Nana Saheb
Q10. Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.
Ans. (i) Untouchability and child marriage
(ii) The British decided to do away with import duty on goods manufactured in England.
This severely affected Indian industries.
In 1818, they passed Regulation III. Under it, an Indian could be jailed without trial in a court.
(iii) They lost their old jobs and lands. They were being converted by the British.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence were:
- Indians had become slaves in their own country.
- The East India Company destroyed Indian industries.
- There was huge difference in the treatment of the English men and the Indians.
- The use of grease on the bullet was spoiling the customs of Indians as it was made of the fat of the cows and pigs.
Working with Language
Q1. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
Ans. (i) The first man said that they must educate their brothers.
The second man added that they must try to improve their material conditions.
The third man suggested that they must convey their grievances to the British Parliament.
(ii)The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants.
The second soldier remarked that they got a pittance and slow promotions.
The third soldier asked who the British were to abolish their customs.