Unit 1 - Planning in Sports
Planning in sports is the process of setting goals, developing strategies and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals of sports events. In other words we can say that planning is to decide a course of action. A planning should be based upon futuristic concept and need based. The planning is needed for better organization and systematic implementation of the event.
Meaning of Planning
Planning is the process which helps us in reaching at our destination efficiently and smoothly. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal.
It is related to the organization of various types of sports tournaments such as knock-out tournaments, league tournaments, combination tournaments, and challenge tournaments, etc. It is also related to sports training such as short term and long term aims.
Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance about setting of goals and developing strategies which are required to attain the goals efficiently. However, in the field of physical education and sports, there are various types of planning. There are also training session plans, weekly plans, micro cycle plan and yearly plans. This planning is necessary for optimum development of all the factors on which the performance depends. It is also necessary for regulation and evaluation of training process.
Objectives of Planning
Planning is done considering the aim and objectives of programme along with time and finances available for programme. The following are the objectives of Planning:
(1) It increases the sports performance of athletes.
(2) It aims at proper coordination among the various members of committees, formed for organizing the competition smoothly.
(3) It begins with requirements of the programme based upon number of participants, type of activity, etc.
(4) It helps in keeping a good control in organizing a tournament.
(5) It improves the efficiency of sports officials in conducting sports events/competitions.
(6) It reduces the chances of mistakes and oversights.
(7) It helps innovative and creative thinking among sports officials because many new ideas come to the mind of officials when they make a plan.
Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)
Q1. What is planning?
Ans. Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action. Planning covers all the aspects of any tournament.
Q2. Name some specific sports programmes.
Ans. Specific sports programmes are:
1. Health run
2. Run for fun
3. Run for unity
4. Run for awareness
Q3. What do you mean by the word 'Tournament'?
Ans. Tournament is that series of sports competitions in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose the matches. Nowadays, tournaments or competitions are held according to set rules and regulations. There are various tournaments in the field of sports as zonal level, district level, national level and international level.
Q4. List the various types of tournaments.
Ans. Various types of tournaments are:
(í) Knock-out tournament
(ii) League tournament
(iii) Combination tournament
(iv) Challenge tournament
Q5. What do you mean by consolation tournaments?
Ans. Consolation tournaments are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated team.
Q6. What do you mean by combination tournament?
Ans. Combination tournaments are conducted when the matches are to be played on group basis or zonal basis. As a matter of fact, these tournaments depend on the suitability of the activity, the number of participating teams and the areas and distance from which they come to participate.
Q7. What do you mean by league cum league tournament?
Ans. In this type of tournament total number of teams are divided in four zones. All the teams play their matches in their respective zones on league basis. One team from each zone becomes the zonal winner. It is called zonal or group tournament. After all the zonal winner teams again play the matches on league basis and one team becomes the winner of inter zonal or group tournament.
Q8. What do you mean by seeding?
Ans. Seeding is such a method in which strong teams/players are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixture so that they may not meet in the earlier rounds. They usually meet at the stage of quarter finals. For the selection of strong teams, the organizers must be well aware of the previous performance of the teams.
Q9. What is special seeding?
Ans. In special seeding, the seeded players participate directly in quarter-final or semi-final. They need not wait for longer duration.
Q10. Define knock-out tournament. / What is elimination tournament?
Ans. In this type of tournament, a team which is once defeated, automatically gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning team continue in the tournament. It means that second opportunity is not given to the defeated team.
Q11. What are the advantages of knockout tournament?
Ans. 1.The knockout tournaments are less expensive because the team, which gets defeated; is eliminated from the competition.
2. The knockout tournament is helpful in enhancing the standard of sports because each team tries to present the best performance to avoid the defeat.
3. It requires less time to complete the tournament due to less number of matches.
Q12. What are the disadvantages of knockout tournament?
1. There may be many chances of elimination of good teams in 1st or 2nd round. So good teams may not reach into the final round.
2. There are maximum chances of weak teams to enter into the final round.
3. Spectators may not have enough interest in the final match.
Q13. What do you mean by 'League tournament'? / What is Round Robin tournament?
Ans. 'League Tournament' is also called 'Round RobinTournament'. Mr. Burger was the first person, who imagined about the league tournament and owing to that, it is also called 'Burger System'. In this type of tournament, each team plays with every other team once, if it is a single league tournament. If it is double league tournament, each team plays with every other team twice. In these types of tournament, every team plays with every other team without any consideration of victory or defeat.
Q14. What are the advantages of league tournament?
Ans. 1. Only strong or deserving team gets victory in the tournament.
2. Every team gets full opportunity to show its efficiency or performance.
3. Sports and games can be made more popular through league tournament due to maximum number of matches.
4. In such type of tournament, the sports officials do not face any difficulty while selecting or determining the appropriate players or team. They have enough time to watch the efficiency and performance of a player.
Q15. What are the disadvantages of league tournament?
Ans. 1. It requires more time.
2. It costs more.
3. The teams coming from far and wide, generally face more problems because such tournaments waste their time and money.
4. It requires more arrangement for sports officials and teams.
5. Most of the teams become psychologically down due to their defeat again and again. In such situation, these teams become unable to show good performance. That is why, the spectators do not get proper recreation.
Q16. What do you mean by a 'bye'?
Ans. A team, which gets bye, does not play in the first round. It is a form of privilege to a team which is exempted to participate in first round. It is given by drawing lots. If the number of teams in a tournament is in power of two i.e., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 etc. bye is not given to any team.
Q17. Explain procedure for giving bye.
Ans. Before drawing a fixture, two things are ensured, i.e. whether the number of teams participating is a power of two or not. If the number of teams is a power of two, byes are not given. In case the number of teams is not a power of two, then byes shall be given. For instance if the number of teams participating are 11, next higher power of two will be 16. So, the number of byes is 16 – 11 =5.
Q18. What is health run?
Ans. Health run is organized by health department, sports department or social organizations. Usually their purpose is to ameliorate the standard of health in a country along with the raising of funds for charity. Health run is such a great physical activity that offers a significant health benefits. Health run does not require any specific preparation.
Q19. What do you mean by intramurals?
Ans. The word 'Intramural' is derived from the Latin words 'Intra' and ‘Muralis'. ‘Intra’ means ‘within’ and `Muralis' means 'walls'. It means that the activities which are performed within the walls or within the campus of an institution are called `intramurals'. These activities are organized only for the students of a school or institution.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Q. Briefly mention the objectives of intramurals.
Ans. The objectives of intramural are
(ì) To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.
(ii) To develop sportsman spirit among students.
(iii) To help in recreation of the students.
(iv) To improve social relations among the students.
Q. Discuss any two importances of tournaments.
Ans. Importance of tournaments are -
Source of Recreation A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators. Development of Social Qualities Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.
Q. What are the advantages of knock-out tournaments?
Ans. The advantages of knock-out tournaments are
(i) Minimum number of officials is required in organizing tournaments.
(ii)Less number of matches is played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
(íìì) Less expensive because the team which gets defeated is eliminated from the competition.
Q. Briefly explain about any two specific sports programmes.
Ans. Sports programmes can be explained as
(ì) Run for Fun: It can be organized by any educational institution for another institution or organization and for people of all ages. It is arranged just for the sake of fun to create Good habits for good health.
(ìì) Run for Unity: An institution can organize a run for unity to create a feeling of unity among the people and communities for the unity of the country,
Q. Mention the activities which are included in intramurals and extramural,
Ans. Activities that are included are:
Drill, Dumb-bell, Marching, chess, Roller skating, Sack race, Shuttle run, Volleyball, Football, Cricket, Basketball, Athletics, Kho - kho, Cycling etc.
Extramural Friendly matches, restricted competitions, Open competitions etc.
Q1. Discuss any two importance of tournaments.
Ans. Sports tournaments are a good source of recreation. They provide ample recreation to the spectators. For getting recreation, they do not hesitate to make a large expenditure. That is why, a large number of people go to watch the Olympic Games and world cups of various games and sports.
Social traits and ethical values such as tolerance, sympathy, cooperation, brotherhood, discipline, fair play, justice, honesty and respect for others are developed among participants through sports tournaments.
Q2. Explain about knockout tournament with an example.
Ans. Most of the tournaments are organized on the basis of knockout. In this type of tournament, a team which is once defeated, automatically gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams continue in the tournament. It means that second opportunity is not given to the defeated team. Opportunities are given to the winning teams or players. For example: If four teams participate in knock out tournament, the winning team is declared in the following way:
In the 1st round, team A and B as well as team C and D play their matches. If team B and team D become the winners of 1st round, these teams i.e., B and D get opportunity to play in the 2nd round and team A and team C will be eliminated from the tournament. Finally, team D becomes the winners of the tournament.
Q3. Explain any two objectives of intramurals.
Ans. (1) The main objective of intramurals is to find out the talented sportspersons. It is a well-known fact that every nation of the world wants to win medals at international level such as world cup and Olympics. It is not as easy as we think. In the previous century, the Germans adopted "Catch them young" technique. Intramural competitions help us find out the talented sportspersons due to participation of all the students in such competitions.
(2) Another objective of intramural activities is to provide the opportunity to develop the physical, mental, social and emotional aspects of personality of students.
Q4. Briefly explain any two objectives of extramurals.
Ans. (1) The main objective of extramurals is to broaden the base of sports. Many students from various schools participate in extramurals and get motivated. Such motivation broadens the base for sports.
(2) Another important objectives of extramurals is to provide the knowledge of new rules, regulations, advanced techniques and tactics of sports and games to the students. Students come to know about new rules and regulations of the games and sports. They learn new techniques as well as tactics which enable them to improve their performance.
Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Q1. Mention the activities which are included in ‘intramurals’.
Ans. There are a number of activities which may be included in intramural competitions. The activities for intramurals should be selected very carefully. Mainly, the selection of activities should be based on two factors viz., interests of students and availability of facilities in the institutions or school. Along with these factors, we should not forget the recreational aspect of intramurals. All the intramural activities must give recreation to the students. These activities should be capable of achieving the goals of education and general development of the students. Hence, the selection should be made out of the following categories of activities:
1. Major games: Volleyball, Hockey, Cricket, Basketball, Kabaddi, Swimming, Athletics, Cycling, Wrestling, Lawn tennis, Football, Softball and Badminton etc.
2. Minor games: Shuttle Runs, Kho-Kho, Circle games, Tag games, Roller Skating, Potato Race, Sack Race and Three-legged Race etc.
3. Rhythmic: Lazium, Dumb-bell, Marching, Folk dance, Group dance, Socio dance, Mass P.T. and Rhythmic Gymnastics etc.
4. Creative activities: Painting, Drawing. Sculpturing, Making model.
5. Combative activities: Boxing, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate etc.
Q2. Explain seeding method and special seeding in knockout tournament.
Ans. There is always a possibility in knockout tournament that strong teams may be paired with weak teams or all strong teams might have been grouped in upper half or lower half. In this way, some strong teams have the possibility to be eliminated in the preliminary round. So this may be a setback to the strong teams to avoid such a situation, seeding method is used. In this method, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate place in the fixture. For the selection of strong teams to avoid such a situation, seeding method is used. In this method, the strong teams, the organizers must be well-aware of the previous performance of teams. If two teams are to be seeded, one team is kept on the top of upper half and second team is kept in the last of the lower half. If 4 teams are to be seeded, the first two teams will be kept at the places mentioned above. The third seeded team will be kept on the top of lower half and the fourth seeded team will be kept at the lowest place in the upper half. Generally, the number of seeded teams, is kept in the fixture by lots.
Q3. Briefly explain the need of extramural competitions.
Ans. Extramural competitions provide ample opportunities to schools to show their sports capabilities. If the students of a school have good sports capabilities and show good performance in extramural, they will be able to put a colourful feather in the cap of that institution. It will enhance the image of that institution.
Through extramural competitions, the standard of sports performance can be enhanced. Specially, the losers can make strenuous efforts to improve their sports performance in next extramural competitions.
Extramurals are essential for making and implementing the programmes of physical education more effective. Extramural also helps in broadening the base of sports.
Q4. Elucidate the importance of tournament in detail.
Ans. Tournament is that series of sports in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose the matches. Before organizing a tournament, it is very essential to prepare a good plan. There are various methods to organize a tournament. To select the best method it depends upon various factors such as what is the number of participating teams? What facilities of ground equipment, number of officials are available and in how many days, the tournament is to be completed.
Importance of Tournament
1. By participating in tournaments various skills of sports are developed. The maximum number of participation in tournaments does not develop only technical skills of the sports but tactical skills also. They acquire efficiency in skills and finally, they improve the game.
2. Tournaments are helpful in publicizing the sports. When a tournament of a new sports is organized, the spectators come to know about that sports. Thus, it creates interests in that sport.
3. On the basis of tournament, the good players can be selected easily by observing their performance in the tournament. Those players, who present good performance, can be selected for upper level tournament so, tournament is an appropriate way to select a good team of players.
4. Sports tournaments are helpful in developing national integration as well as international unity and brotherhood. Tournament is one of the best means of enhancing international peace.
Q7. What do you mean by intramurals? Mention the need of intramurals for school children.
Ans. The word 'intramural' is derived from the Latin word `intra' and 'murals'. Intra means 'within' and 'murals' means 'wall'. It means that the activities which are performed within the walls or within the compound of an institution are called `intramurals'. These activities are organized only for the students of the school or institutions. No student of other schools can participate in these activities. "A game for each and each for a game" may be considered the motto of intramurals. It is usually such that approximately 5% students of a school are selected to participate is such competitions. Have we ever thought about the remaining percentage of students of a school? The intramural programmes can solve this problem because these programmes offer ample opportunities for voluntary participation and competition among the students of the same institution.
Need of Intramurals: In simple term, intramural means, "A game for each and each for a game."
1. Intramurals are very essential for physical, mental, emotional and social development of students.
2. These programmes also lay stress on moral and ethical values of students.
3. Intramurals are necessary for the development of health of children.
4. These programmes are also essential to calm down the fighting instinct of children.
5. These programmes refresh the children and make them agile.
6. Intramurals provide maximum recreation to the students.
Q8. Elucidate the need of Extramurals.
Ans. The word 'Extramural' is derived from the Latin words 'extra' and 'murals'. Extra means 'outside' and 'murals' means 'wall'. It means that the activities, which are performed outside the walls of an institution or school. It means that the activities, which are organized by an institution/school and the students of two or more schools participate in them.
Extramurals are essential in the field of physical education because without extramurals competitions, the programmes of physical education remain incomplete. The following points are significant to show the need of extramural competitions.
1. Extramural competitions provide ample opportunities to schools to show their sports capabilities. The students of a school have good sports capabilities and show good performance in extramurals, they will be able to put a new feather in the cap of that institution. It will enhance the image of that institution.
2. Through extramural competitions the standard of sports performance can be enhanced specially. The losers can make strenuous efforts to improve their sports performance in next extramural competitions.
3. Extramurals are essential to provide appropriate knowledge of new techniques of sports. The teams, which do not have appropriate as well as advanced techniques of various sports and games, can get such knowledge by participating in extramurals.
4. Extramurals are essential for making and implementing the programme of physical education more effective. Extramurals also help in broadening the base sports.
Q9. What do you mean by specific sports programmes? Explain about health run and run for unity in detail.
Ans. Specific sports programmes are such programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. These sports programmes have various objectives such as creating awareness among people regarding unity, health and diseases like AIDS, swine flu etc. and raising funds for charitable institutions or organizations.
Health Run: Health runs are organized by health department, sports department or social organizations. Usually their purpose is to ameliorate the standard of health in country along with raising funds for charity. Health run is such a great physical activity as offers a significant health benefits. Health run does not require any specific preparation. For health runs, the requirement is only a pair of shoes and light clothes. There is no competition in it but registration of participant is performed in advance. The date and time is also fixed well in advance. There is no age limit in health runs and the distance course of running is also fixed up.
Run for unity: Such a run is organized with a specific purpose i.e. to show unity and peace among the people of different religions. Its purpose may be national and international integration and brotherhood. In some countries, run for unity is organized to celebrate their independence. It may be in the form of relay race of long distance. Every participant runs some distance. The cash prize is given to the first three position holders. Such runs create harmony, peace and solidarity among people of different religions. It brings a sense of togetherness among people.
Q10. Enlist the committees for organizing sports events and explain any five communities in detail.
Ans. 1. Committee for publicity
2. Transport committee
3. Boarding and lodging committee
4. Decoration and ceremony
5. Refreshment and entertainment committee
6. Reception committee
7. Ground and Equipment committee
8. Announcement committee
9. Committee for officials
1. Transport committee: This committee is responsible for providing the facilities regarding transportation of various teams to the venues of sports events or the place of boarding and lodging as the case may be. Its main duty is to make necessary arrangements for transportation.
2. Boarding and lodging committee: Boarding and lodging committee is responsible for making necessary arrangement for providing accommodation and serving meals to the sportspersons and officials.
3. Grounds and equipment committee: This committee is responsible for making the grounds or laying out the track and field. This committee also makes necessary arrangement of equipment related to the game, athletic meet. This committee is also responsible for providing the equipments according to specifications.
4. Refreshments and entertainment committee: This committee takes the charge of supplying refreshments and drinks to the guests, officials and competitors etc. It also makes some arrangement for entertainment programmes at the opening ceremony and closing ceremony of sports events.
5. Reception committee: The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the chief guests at the opening and closing ceremonies. It is also the duty of this committee to welcome the other guests and spectators.