Unit 2 - Adventure Sports and Leadership Training
Adventure sports are usually outdoor sports which involve intense and sometimes life-threatening actions which create an adventurous atmosphere. The individuals who are involved with adventure sports, compete against nature rather than against another individual. Adventure sports are those sports which are related to unlimited thrill, excitement, entertainment and adventure. Individuals take part in such sports for passion, entertainment and due to a strong urge for thrill and adventure. By taking part in adventure sports one can learn about himself, conquer the fears and gather a sense of achievement or success.
Objectives of adventure sports activity
Adventure sports are outdoor activities which give individuals a chance to experience nature very closely. The individuals come closer to nature. They have bonding with the nature and the surrounding environment which provides exposure to natural environment.
Outdoor presents the best arena for the individual to assess his own capabilities and limitations by participating in the outdoor activities.
Another objective of adventure sports is to encourage creativity in individuals. Adventure sports encourage creativity in the innovation of new maneuverers and in the different ways of execution of existing techniques.
Another important objective of adventure sports is to develop concentration in the participants. An individual gets a series of absorbing exercise by participating in adventure sports.
Adventure sports inculcate the spirit of adventure and educate them about the evils of deforestation and quarrying. They imbibe the attitude of give and take and encourage learning through observation.
Natural resources are materials and components that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources. Natural resources can be classified into two categories:
(1) Renewable resources
(2) Non-renewable resources
(1) Renewable resources: Natural resources are those sources which may be obtained continuously year after year for the satisfaction of human needs, such as land, water and plants. These resources do not exhaust. They have the capacity to regenerate themselves. Water agriculture, fish and trees are some examples of replenishable resources.
(2) Non-Renewable resources: These resources are those which once mined and used cannot be regenerated. As for example, coal and natural oil are such non-replenishable because once they are mined and used, they cannot be renewed. In fact, all mineral resources are limited in quantity which can neither be increased nor renewed. Coal, mineral oil, iron-ore are non-replenishable resources.
They are those resources which can be used over and over again. Solar and tidal energy, wind and water are some reusable resources because they can be used over and over again.
Resources which once used cannot be used again are called non-reusable resources. Mineral oil, gas, coal are some non-reusable resources because after using them once we cannot use them again.
Need of Conserving Our Resources
There is no doubt that land, water, plants etc. are renewable resources and can therefore be used over and over again for the satisfaction of human needs. But there is limit to everything. If they are used unwisely and limitlessly there can be a lot of problems. Not only it will lead to their depletion but also the natural equilibrium will be disturbed. The great demand of land for construction of houses and industries may toll heavy on the valuable cultivated land or may lead to deforestation. But such a thing would lead to a food shortage. Deforestation or indiscriminate cutting of trees leads to floods, soil erosion, and sitting up of the river channels.
How we can conserve our Resources?
The different ways of conserving our resources are as follows:
(a) The non-renewable resources like different minerals require a special attention. Wastage during mining and processing should be reduced to the minimum.
(b) Where possible, alternative products such as wood and plastic should be used.
(c) Scrap should be recycled so as to prolong the life of our limited metallic mineral resources. For example, iron scrap should be processed into steel.
(d) Watery and marshy lands should be reclaimed and the available land should be put to optimum use.
(e) Rivers may be linked to each other and if desired their directions be changed so that not a drop of water goes waste into the sea. The waste water from the factories be recycled to be used over and over again.
Use of Natural Resources
There are various natural resources such as water, coal, fossil fuel, natural gas, forest, air etc. which are being used persistently by human beings. It is our great responsibility to use these natural resources in appropriate way. We must use them wisely. The main problem before us is the fast depletion of natural resources such as forest, natural gas, wildlife, oil, petrol, etc. The major reasons for this depletion are the improper and excessive use and fast rate of growth of population. Many natural resources can be identified which are not used properly by human beings.
Some of these natural resources are mentioned below:
Water: Water is the most important natural resource which should be used properly. If we see wastage of water everywhere which can be avoided simply by providing training to educate people? They should use minimum water for daily needs such as cleaning utensils. Cleanliness, flushing in toilet, irrigating the garden plants, in irrigating the fields and in industries etc.
Forests: Forests are not used properly because there is uncontrolled felling of forests. In fact there is deforestation at large scale. There are various causes of deforestation such as forest fires, expansion of agriculture land, commercial plantation, over-grazing, dam projects, mining, firewood, commercial purposes, adventure sports and tourism etc.
Natural Gas: There are several households which use natural gas for heating water in their homes. For heating water, solar water heater can be used. Hydro-power can be used for heating water. In such a way, the use of natural gas can be minimized.
Fossil Fuels: On earth there is limited amount of fossil fuels hence, if it is not used properly it can get over. The coming generations will have to face a number of problems. So for proper use of fossil fuels some renewable sources such as solar energy, gas, and water energy may be used for cars and other vehicles.
Conservation of Environment
Conservation of environment simply implies the sustainable use as well as the management of natural resources. It does not mean that use of natural resources should be stopped. In fact, the aim of conservation of environment is the balanced and appropriate use of natural resources so that neither the environment is affected nor the coming generations are deprived of them. Conservation of natural resources usually focuses on the needs and interest of human beings, such as, the biological, economic, cultural and recreational values.
Suggestions for Conservation of Environment
Conservation of Forests
(1) More and more trees should be planted.
(2) Avoid overgrazing of grass lands by animals.
(3) Paper comes from trees. Thus, make attempts to use recycled paper. Do not waste paper.
(4) Instead of buying wood furniture, plastic and aluminium chairs or almirahs can be bought.
Conservation of Energy
(1) Switch off bulbs, tube-lights, fans and other electric appliances when not in use.
(2) Other sources of energy, like solar energy, wind energy, etc. can also be used.
(3) Solar cookers, solar water heaters etc. can be used instead of LPG, coal or kerosene.
(4) Car-pooling is an excellent way to save fuel. Public transport can also be used.
Conservation of Water
(1) Close taps when not in use. Do not keep the water taps open while washing, cleaning and brushing teeth.
(2) Do not dump waste material into rivers or other water bodies.
(3) Factories should not dump hazardous or poisonous material on land or in water bodies. This makes water (even ground water) poisonous.
(4) Check any leakage in pipes.
Conservation of Food
(1) Food grains should be properly stored and protected from rodents.
(2) Excessive use of pesticides should be discouraged.
Suggestions for Conservation of Environment to the Persons Related to Adventure Sports
Persons involved in adventure sports, like camping, rock-climbing, trekking, river rafting etc., can also contribute to conserving to conserving the environment, in the following ways.
(1) Do not cut trees, herbs etc. during expedition.
(2) Do not wash clothes, bathe or urinate near river banks.
(3) Do not throw plastic bottles, politeness or other such material in mountains or valleys.
(4) During activities like camping, do not leave the waste scattered on the ground. Instead, use a dustbin.
(5) Do not leave any non-biodegradable waste product while participating in ad-venture sports.
(6) During activities like rafting, many people throw various things in water for fun. However, this should be avoided, as it pollutes the water.
Very Short and Short Answer (1 Mark)
Q1. Define adventure sports.
Ans. The activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger or those activities which of them called adventure sports.
Q2. Explain any two objectives of participation in adventure sports.
Ans. One objective is to develop self-confidence, while another objective is to have bonding with nature
Q3. Enlist the equipment required for camping.
Ans. Camping requires a tent or caravan, sleeping bag, flashlight, cooking implements, tools, first aid kit, hiking boots etc.
Q4. Write the names of some natural resources.
Ans. Forests, wind, minerals / metal ores, sunlight, rocks, mountains, rivers, atmosphere, aqua culture, navigable channels, fossil fuels like oil and natural gas, soil and wildlife are some natural resources.
Q5. What are Abiotic resources?
Ans. Abiotic resources are those that come from non-living, non-organic material. For example, land, fresh water, air and heavy metals including ores such as gold, iron, copper and silver etc.
Q6. What do we mean by biotic resources?
Ans. Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere (living and organic material) such as forests and animals and the materials that can be obtained from them. They include coal and petroleum, as they are organic materials.
Q7. What is camping?
Ans. Camping is an outdoor recreational activity. The campers get away from civilization and enjoy nature while spending one or more nights, usually at a camp site. Camping may involve the use of a tent, a primitive structure, or no shelter at all.
Q8. Name five adventure sports activities.
Ans. The different types of adventurous activities are camping, rock climbing, trekking, river rafting, mountaineering etc.
Q9. What is rock climbing?
Ans. Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up and down or across natural formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the end point of a predefined route without failing. To complete a climb successfully, one must return to the base of the route safely.
Q10. What is mountaineering?
Ans. Mountaineering is all about challenge and perseverance. It is about putting hands and feet onto rocks and ice and snow and finally reaching a summit.
Q11. Who is a leader?
Ans. If an individual offers his services in a selfless manner after making a scheme for the development of the individuals of the society, he is ordinarily addressed as a leader.
Q12. What is good leadership?
Ans. According to Montgomery, “The capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose is called leadership.” Leadership is the quality of a person to lead others in a family, society, tribe, group or country.
Q13. What are renewable resources?
Ans. Renewable resources are those resources which can be renewed. There are inexhaustible resources. For example: Solar power, water power, geothermal energy, biomass energy etc. All these resources are renewable/ inexhaustible in nature.
Q14. What are non-renewable resources?
Ans. Non-renewable resources are those resources that cannot be renewed. These are exhaustible in nature. Minerals are the most common resources included in this category. Some resources like uranium naturally decay into heavy metals without human interference.
Q15. What are the types of Trek?
Ans. (a) Tea House Trek: Tea means doing trek by eating and sleeping at tea/guest house where the tea houses are available for sleep and already setup by the villager for providing the service to the clients.
(b) Camping Trek: Camping trek is a little trek house where organizers or participants carry all the different things required for trek like all food items, tent for sleep during the trek trips.
Q16. What is easy trekking?
Ans. The individuals specially the beginners are offered easy treks. There is no difficult climbing. It means there is no climbing on high altitudes. Such treks usually provide colourful horizons of whole series of mountain ranges.
Q17. Briefly explain about the conservation of forests.
Ans. Conservation of forests can also be done by saving plants. Plantation should be encouraged to conserve forests. Increasing plantation will help us to fight against deforestation. It also helps to reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A better environment helps individuals to lead a healthy life.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Q1. List any three objectives of adventure sports.
Ans. The objectives of adventure sports are:
(ì) To develop self-confidence and concentration.
(ii) To bond with nature.
(iii) To face challenges of crisis situations.
(iv) To properly channelize bodily energy.
(v) To provide exhilaration, amusement and excitement.
(vi) To improve social relations.
Q2. What are the different levels of trekking?
Ans. The four levels or trekking are easy, moderate, strenuous and difficult. Easy trekking is for beginners and does not involve climbing to great heights, Moderate trekking more energetic and of duration of about ten days or more. Strenuous trekking involves ascent to heights up to 5000 meters and requires some previous trekking experience. Difficult trekking meant only for the real adventure seekers, may last for over a month.
Q3. Explain three characteristics of river rafting activity.
Ans. The characteristics or river ratting activity are:
(i) It involves using a dinghy or raft for navigating fast flowing rivers.
(ii) Due to the swift flow and rocks in the river, the passage requires good navigation skill for manoeuvering the raft.
(iii) It requires great physical and mental toughness to survive the ordeal without accident or injury.
Q4. What are three advantages of engaging in mountaineering activity?
Ans. Three advantages of engaging in mountaineering activity are:
(i) It is one or the finest outdoor opportunities are table for lovers or heights.
(ii) It challenges the individual to display tremendous endurance, agility, strength and mental patience
(iii) It gives the unique experience of putting hands and feet onto rocks and ice to reach a summit.
Q5. Explain in brief about rock climbing.
Ans. Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb on natural rock formations or on artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the end point of pre-determined route without falling. To complete a climb successfully, the participant must come to the base safely. These competitions have objectives either to complete the pre-fixed route in the minimum time or to attain the farthest point on difficult routes. There are different types of climbing such as Aid climbing, free climbing or Traditional climbing etc.
Q6. Discuss in brief the meaning of conservation of environment.
Ans. Conservation of environment simply implies the sustainable use as well as the management of natural resources such as wildlife, water, air, energy and earth deposits. Conservation of environment does not mean that the use of natural resources should be stopped. Actually the aim of conservation of environment is the balanced and appropriate use of natural resources so that neither the environment is affected nor the coming generations are deprived of them.
Q7. How can you use water properly?
Ans. We can make use of water in a proper way by not leaving the water tap open while washing clothes, shaving and brushing teeth etc. One must check and stop any leakage in water taps/pipes. More stress should be laid on Rain water harvesting as well. The use of ground water should be in a fair manner. The misuse of water can be prevented by drip irrigation and sprinkle agriculture. Setting up of water purifying plants which purify water flowing out of industries also helps in water conservation.
Q8. What is trekking? Discuss various types of trekking.
Ans. Trekking is an adventure sports. It is not an easy task to do trekking. Indeed it needs a lot of courage, confidence and a strong physique. A trek is a long journey on foot, especially in the mountains. Trekking refers to making the long and difficult journey on the mountains for pleasure or sport.
Q9. Mention the material requirements for camping.
Ans. First aid kit, Tent or other type of shelter, Hammer to drive tent stakes into the soil,
Sleeping bag or blanket for warmth, sleeping pad to be placed under the sleeping bag,
Flash light or lantern, Axe or saw for firewood for a camp-fire, Rain coat, hiking boots,
Bags for handling waste, Sunscreen for protecting the skin, Personal care product and towel, Cooking implements, Multi-tool or knife, Insect repellent, Ignition device or matchbox, Plastic blades, Sufficient amount of food substances.
Q10. Elaborate the material requirement for trekking.
Ans. Food material and cooking utensils, Clothing, First aid box, Sleeping bag, A good pair of shoes and socks, Rope, Wind cheater if rainy reason, Candle or flash light, Match box, Clock, Soap, Paper dishes, safety pins, Tent mattress, Stove.
Q11. Mention the material requirement for Rafting.
Ans. A swim suit, Sunshade or cap, Sun glasses, Plastic bags for wet things, Helmet, All kitchen and camping equipments, Tennis shoes and socks, Flashlight, Sun screen lotion, Personal medication, Life jacket or vest, First aid box, Waterproof bags.
Q12. Mention the material requirement for mountaineering.
Ans. Sleeping bag, Inflatable pad, Ice axe, hammer, Crampons with 12 pikes, Harness with adjustable leg loops, Locking carabiners, Climbing helmet, Ski or trekking poles, Snow shoes, Mountaineering shoes and socks, Over boots required for expeditions to mountains above 16,000 feet, Sunglasses, Sun hats, Face mask, Light gloves, mild gloves and heavy gloves, Sun skirt, Insulated mug, Personal first aid kit, Spoon, water bottles, bowl, pee bottle, Lip-Screen, Sunscreen.
Q13. Mention the material requirement for rock climbing.
Ans. A rope, , A harness, Good quality climbing shoes, Tight fitting clothings, A helmet, Tapes for fingers to avoid abrasions, Belay devices, Carabiners, Belaying Gloves, Webbing, Chalk bag.
Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Q1. What do you understand by conservation of environment? Explain in brief.
Ans. Environmental conservation is the act of conserving or saving our natural resources through careful management. This means we can use the resources but wisely and with responsibility. For example: reducing of water waste, saving trees and forests, recycling, using renewable resources that do not deplete our natural resources.
Conservation refers to protecting our biodiversity from being endangered. Bio-diversity is greatly affected by the human activities and climatic changes. Biodiversity has brought us many advantages. It provides us food and is a source of raw materials, for example - wood from plants can be used for making furniture. Its loss can affect our water supply and atmosphere. Therefore, conserving biodiversity has great importance.
Q2. Why conservation of water, energy and forest is necessary?
Ans. 1. Water is an important natural resources. Less than 2% of water on planet is fresh water. Most of this fresh water is being polluted. Nearly 900 million people do not have access to water. This is free from industrial waste and disease causing germs. People have to walk miles every day to fetch drinking water. We should remember these facts when we let the water flow from the tap when we brush our teeth or when we shave. We should seriously consider harvesting rain water.
2. Ozone layer protects us from harmful radiation emitting from the sun. These ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer in human beings. They also reduce immunity in human beings and animals and cause considerable damage to plant life. Plankton in the ocean will be reduced due to these dangerous rays. Chlorofluorocarbons are depleting the ozone layer. These should be replaced before further damage is caused.
3. Trees should be allowed to grow. Trees reduce air temperature, remove pollution from the atmosphere, provide us with oxygen, reduce noise pollution and decrease soil erosion. Sometimes it becomes necessary to cut down trees. This should be made up by planting more trees.
Q3. List five uses of water as a natural resource indicating how it can be conserved.
Ans. Uses of water as a natural resource are:
(1) Using ground water (from wells / tube wells) for crop irrigation. This can be conserved by using sprinklers and drip irrigation method.
(2) Use of rain water run multiple needs. By rain water harvesting, this can be used.
(3) Reuse waste water flowing from industries after effluent treatment.
(4) Using water for domestic needs like drinking, bathing, clothes washing etc. To conserve this, avoid keeping water taps open while brushing teeth, shaving etc. Also check and repair leakage in water taps or pipes.
(5) Use of river water for multiple needs. This water must be treated for effluents before being released for irrigation.
Q4. What are the Safety Measures for rock climbing?
Ans. The following safety measures should be taken into consideration for rock climbing:
1. Always check both the climbers’ and belay’s harness buckles are doubled back when you are out for rock climbing.
2. Always check knots before starting climbing.
3. Always wear a helmet while climbing a rock. It protects your head from falling.
4. Make sure that the climbing is long enough to reach the anchors. So for the purpose of safety use a long rope.
5. While belaying always pay attention to the leader.
6. Before you climb make sure that you bring enough gear with you.
7. When you are leading always make sure that the rope is over your leg rather than between them. So, if you climb with the rope over your leg it will provide you sufficient safety.
8. Check your knots, harness buckle, belay etc. frequently.
9. Take some time with each step.
10. Avoid the tendency to rely completely on the hands and arms and learn to trust on your feet.
Q5. Explain five methods of conservation of environment which should be employed by persons engaging in adventure sports.
Ans. Methods of conservation of environment which should be employed persons engaging in adventure sports are:
(1) Don't leave leftover eatables or any rubbish by the roadside. Either dispose in a proper dumping place or bury it.
(2) Dirty utensils and clothes should not be washed in streams. Collect water in a bucket and wash them with that.
(3) Do not leave any non-biodegradable waste products at any place, but bring them back to deposit at waste collection centers or approved dumping sites.
(4) Do not defecate or urinate near streams or on river banks.
(5) Do not remove or cut trees, herbs or shrubs for burning fires or cooking during your activity.
Q6. What are the Safety Measures for Rafting?
Ans. For river rafting, the stress be laid on the following points:
1. You should avoid to go for river rafting alone. In fact river rafting alone is a sign of just asking for trouble.
2. You should have enough capabilities as a swimmer.
3. You should have proper knowledge about the classification of the river. These are classified from grad I to VII (from easy level to dangerous level).
4. Whenever you go for river rafting, always wear life vest and helmet.
5. Before going for river rafting, check the equipment to make sure that everything is in place and nothing has become defective. Taking a few minutes to check for cracks and the air levels of the rafts will always be beneficial.
6. If it is going dark, don’t raft. So end your trip before darkness falls.
7. Drink plenty of liquids before, during and after rafting because rafters can easily forget to stay hydrated.
8. When you feel tired during rafting, it is significant to remember the rule of not dragging their paddle in the water.
Q7. What are the Safety Measures for trekking?
Ans. For trekking the following safety measures should be taken into consideration:
1. Avoid trekking trip during raining reason, specially don’t stay at the flow of water.
2. Tape the required material such as water match box, food stuffs, small knife and rope etc. Even forgetting a small thing can make a big difference in trekking trip.
3. Before heading for trekking trip, see the weather report of that area. Avoid trekking during bad weather or climate conditions.
4. Take multi-pocket carry bag for trekking trips. The bag should be spacious to carry the important trekking essentials.
5. To prevent insect bites do wear full sleeves shirts and full pants.
6. Wear proper footwear so that you don’t slip while trekking on mountains.
7. Don’t eat leaves, flowers etc., while trekking. They may be poisonous.
8. Persons suffering from heart and lung ailments should not go for trekking because they may fall prey to acute mountain sickness.
Q8. What are the safety measures in adventure sports?
Ans. The following are the safety measures in adventure sports:
1. Ensure that you are in good physical condition
2. Always follow the other trekkers and mountaineers
3. Always walk in line when going for trek or mountaineering
4. Always wear life vest and other gears.
5. Learn swimming
6. Drink sufficient water and liquid to avoid dehydration.
7. Use proper shoes or boots during adventurous activity.
8. Use sun screen lotion to avoid UV rays.
9. Use the map and study the route before going for mountaineering or trekking.
10. Don’t eat leaves or unknown fruits. They may be poisonous.
Q9. What are six safety measures to be kept in mind while camping?
Ans. Safety measures to be kept in mind while camping are (any six)
(ì) Pack a first aid kit for use in emergencies.
(ii) Before starting for the camping site, go through the weather forecast for the area. At the camp site, watch the sky for changes.
(iii) Reach the camp site with enough time to check the complete site during day time.
(iv) Avoid areas of natural hazards for camping.
(v) Keep fuel burning appliances like stoves far away from tents.
(vi) Do not use candles or an open flame; instead, use a flashlight inside the tents.
(vii) Do not leave waste products in an open area, but recycle them or bury them.
(viii) Beware when encountering wildlife,
(ix) Ensure to extinguish completely all fires after use; do not leave any smouldering embers.
(x) Beware of poisonous plants, as they may be allergic.
Q10. What precautions should a mountaineer take during mountaineering?
Ans. The following are the precautions that can be taken during mountaineering:
1. Ensure that you are perfectly healthy.
2. Always follow the other trekkers and mountaineers.
3. Always walk in line when going for trek or mountaineering.
4. Always wear life vest and other gears.
5. Learn swimming.
6. Drink sufficient water and liquids to avoid dehydration.
7. Use proper shoes or boots during adventurous activity.
8. Use sun screen lotion to avoid sun UV rays.
9. Use the map and study the route before going for mountaineering or trekking.
10. Don’t eat leaves or unknown fruits. They may be poisonous.
11. Take a multi-pocket carry bag for trekking trips. So that it can be used to carry important trekking material.
12. Be aware of your surrounding and be mindful of fellow mountaineers.
13. Trekkers and mountaineers must check the weather forecast before leaving the camp area.
14. Always carry personal medicines and first aid kit while going for trekking and mountaineering.
Q11. Define leadership. Explain the leadership qualities in physical education.
Ans. According to ‘Montgomery’, “The capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose is called leadership.” In simple words “leadership” may be defined as the quality of a person to lead others in the various fields of life. The following are the leadership qualities:
1. Energetic: A leader should be energetic in the field of physical education. In fact, it is the basic requirement of this profession.
2. Affection and Friendliness: Affection and friendliness are also the necessary qualities for a leader in this profession. These qualities are developed through physical education programmes and Olympic Games specially during training as well as competitions.
3. Decisiveness: A leader in the field of physical education should be decisive. It means he should have the ability to decide or to take decisions spontaneously.
4. Technically Skilled: A leader in the field of physical education should be technically skilled. He should be an expert in his discipline and specialization.