Unit 3 - Sports and Nutrition
Nutrition is defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. In other words, it can be said that nutrition is the science of foods which deals with the dynamic process in which the food consumed is digested, nutrients are absorbed, distributed to the tissues for utilization and wasters are disposed of the body.
Very Short and Short Answer (1 Mark)
Q1. What are vitamins?
Ans. Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body. They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E. K and B-complex (B1, B2, B6 B 8, B12). Vitamins are found in milk, butter, eggs, Breen vegetables, oil, nuts, fish, etc.
Q2. Name the types of vitamins.
Ans. There are various vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1 B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12). There are two groups of vitamins:
(i) Fat Soluble Vitamins: Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are A, D, E and K.
(ii) Water Soluble Vitamins: These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of Nitrogen and Sulphur. These vitamins are B and C.
Q3. What are carbohydrates?
Ans. Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc. are the main source of Carbohydrates. The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.
Q4. What are the types of carbohydrates?
Ans. Carbohydrates are of two types:
(a) Simple carbohydrates
(b) Complex carbohydrates
The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
Q5. What is Glycemic Index?
Ans. Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale of how much a particular type of food raises blood sugar over a two-hour period compared to pure glucose.
Q6. List the goals of nutrition during competition.
Ans. The goals of nutrition during competition are to:
(a) stay hydrated.
(b) provide immediate fuel.
(c) boost performance.
(d) preserve muscle.
(e) improve recovery.
Q7. What do you mean by balanced diet?
Ans. “A diet which contains all the essential food constituents such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion is called balanced diet.”
Q8. What do you mean by macro nutrients?
Ans. Macro nutrients constitute the majority of individual’s diet. Hence, it can be said that they are taken in large amounts. They supply energy and are needed for growth and maintenance to perform activity. They include carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water.
Q9. What do you mean by micro nutrients?
Ans. Minerals and vitamins are included in micro nutrients. Micro nutrients are required in very small amounts. These nutrients are extremely significant for normal functioning of the body. The main function of these nutrients is to enable various chemical reactions to occur in the body. Minerals are further divided into two categories, i.e., macro minerals and micro minerals or trace minerals.
Q10. What do you mean by nutritive components of diet?
Ans. Nutritive components of diet are those components which contribute or provide energy or calories. There are various nutritive components of diet, such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals etc.
Q11. What do you mean by non-nutritive components of diet?
Ans. Non-nutritive components of diet are those components which do not contribute or provide energy or calories. Roughage or fibre, water, calours, flavours and pesticide residues etc. are among tens of thousands of non-nutritive components of diet or food.
Q12. What is anorexia nervosa?
Ans. Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder that affects women and men of all ages. The individuals, who have anorexia nervosa, desire to lose weight because they have intense fear of gaining weight. Such individuals limit the amount of food intake severely and can become dangerously thin.
Q13. What do you mean by bulimia nervosa?
Ans. Bulimia nervosa, also called bulimia, is an eating disorder in which a person eats excessive amount of food and then vomits it in order not to gain weight. Indeed, bulimia is an eating disorder in which an individual binges on food or has regular episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control.
Q14. What do you mean by colour compounds?
Ans. The food or diet is prepared more appetizing and attractive to see by the wide reflection of colours made possible through pigments. Natural pigments are found in fruits and vegetables. The colours from animal products and grains are less bright. There are various colours of fruits and vegetables such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue and cream.
Q15. What are two types of proteins?
Ans. Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. The basic structures of protein are chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. There are two types of proteins:
(a) Non-essential proteins
(b) Essential proteins
Proteins are essential for growth and development of children. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with proteins.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Q1. What are the uses of any two minerals in our diet?
Ans. (ì) Iodine: For creativity as well as proper activity of the thyroid gland, iodine is essential. Its deficiency may stop the growth of hair. It is found in rich quantity in sea fish. Iodized salt is normally the main source of iodine in a normal diet.
(ii) Calcium: is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. It also maintains the balance between acids and bases in our bodies. Milk, cheese, oran8es and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.
Q2. What do you mean by food intolerance?
Ans. Food intolerance is more common than food allergy. Food intolerance is a term used widely for varied physiological responses associated with a particular food. In simple words food intolerance means the individual elements of certain foods that cannot be properly processed and absorbed by our digestive system. Some persons can tolerate a reasonable amount of the food but if they eat too much or too often they get symptoms of food intolerance because their body cannot tolerate unlimited amounts. Food intolerance comes on gradually not frequently. It is not life threatening.
Q3. What are the effects of good nutrition on an individual?
Ans. The following are the effects of good nutrition on an individual:
(a) It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bacterial infections.
(b) It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
(c) It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
(d) It includes healthy babies, better immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.
Q4. Discuss the functions and sources of proteins.
Ans. Proteins are basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a chain of amino-acids that contain carbon, oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen. These are two types of proteins:
(a) Non-essential proteins
(b) Essential proteins
Sources: AIÏ meat, it and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sources are eggs, milk, poultry, milk products, beans etc.
Functions: (a) The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with protein,
(b) Proteins are needed for growth and development of children.
Q5. Briefly explain about vitamins.
Ans. Vitamins are chemicals which are required in very small amount to keep our body healthy. If a particular vitamin is not taken in diet, it may cause a deficiency disease. For example; if vitamin C is not taken in diet, it will cause the scurvy disease. In fact, all the vitamins are organic chemicals. There are two groups of vitamins which are mentioned below:
Fat Soluble Vitamins: Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are composed of the elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These vitamins are: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K.
Water Soluble Vitamins: These vitamins are soluble in water. These vitamins contain the elements of nitrogen and even sulphur. These vitamins are: vitamin B and vitamin C. Earlier the chemical names of all the vitamins (fat soluble and water soluble vitamins) were not known but now their chemical names are available still we use their temporary names.
Q6. Enlist the forms of vitamin B and explain any one of them in brief.
Ans. Vitamin ‘B’ consists of eight soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. These are:
(a) Vitamin B1 or Thiamin
(b) Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin
This vitamin is yellow in colour. This vitamin is usually destroyed in sunlight and in cooking the food for a longer time. It helps in preserving and maintaining the characteristics of youth, tightness and smoothness of skin, activity and body tissues etc. It is essential to keep the eyes, nose, mouth, lips and tongue in healthy state. The deficiency of this vitamin causes stunted growth, unhealthy skin and inflamed eyes. Its deficiency also decreases immunity power of white blood corpuscles.
(c) Vitamin B3 or Pantothenic Acid
(d) Vitamin B5 or Nicotinamide
(e) Vitamin B6
(f) Vitamin B12
(g) Vitamins B9
(h) Vitamins B7
Q7. What is roughage or fibre? Explain in Brief.
Ans. Fibre or roughage has no nutrient value. Hence it is included in non-nutritive components of diet. It is undigested part of the food or it can be said that it cannot be digested by the human intestinal tract. It consists of water and improves intestinal function by adding bulk to food. It helps the individual to satisfy the appetite. It helps to correct the disorders of large intestine. It prevents constipation. Roughage or fibre can be divided into two categories, i.e. soluble and insoluble forms. Soluble fibre can dissolve in water, whereas, insoluble fibre can’t. The soluble fibre reduces blood sugar fluctuation and lowers cholesterol. Insoluble fibre is a good stool softener. Usually 30 grams of fibre is recommended for adult per day. Both types of roughage or fibre are equally significant for human beings. Fibre is helpful in decreasing the risk of heart disease and preventing certain types of cancer.
Q8. Briefly explain the importance of water.
Ans. Water is essential for life. The deficiency of water in body has shown decreased performance. There can be the risk of central nervous system disorders. On the other hand, the excess amount of water intake does not have any improvement in performance because it has no calorific value. It can be concluded that there is no significant effect of diet on the performance. Even the successful sports persons also require a well-balanced diet to present a good performance in sports. A well balanced diet is essential for every sportsperson for ensuring good performance in sports.
Q9. What do you mean by purging and non-purging bulimia?
Ans. Purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia the individual regularly engages in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas. The individual rapidly wants to remove food from the body before it can be digested.
Non-Purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia, the individual uses other methods to get rid of calories and to prevent weight gain. She/he uses fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise but does not engage in self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxative, diuretics or enemas.
Q10. Briefly explain any two food myths.
Ans. 1. Starve yourself if you want to lose weight: Eating a good diet is more important that not eating when you are on a weight loss programme. Include such food items in your diet which suppress appetite and increase metabolism so that you don’t eat too much. So there is no need to starve yourself if you want to lose weight.
2. Exercise makes you eat more: Exercise burns calories which may increase your hunger. Research studies conducted in this area have not shown that the individuals who do exercise, consume more calories than those who don’t exercise. So there is no truth in this statement.
Q11. Discuss any four pitfalls of dieting.
Ans. 1. If you want to lose or maintain weight, you should avoid fatty foods in your diet. Fats are known to have maximum number of calories. These extra calories will be accumulated in your body. So avoid fatty foods if you want to remain slim and trim.
2. If your body weight begins to exceed the required level, follow a simple plan. Just cut or subtract only 100 calories a day. In this way, you can return to your goal weight.
3. Try to avoid junk and fast foods such as pizza, burger, chips, cookies, pastry, chocolate and cold drinks, etc., if you want to lose weight. These foodstuffs are also rich in calories. Intake of such foodstuffs leads to overweight.
3. You should not form a habit to eat frequently. Children who eat frequently usually take extra calories. Therefore, they become obese. So, always avoid to eat frequently for losing and maintaining weight.
Q12. What are the causes of bulimia?
Ans. There is no definite cause of bulimia. Moreover there are some causes of or factors which can be related to bulimia. These causes are mentioned below:
1. Family history or biological factors play a role in developing bulimia. Bulimia may develop to an individual whose parents, brother or sister has bulimia. It has some type of genetic link. It is also possible that the deficiency of a chemical called ‘serotonin’ in the brain may also play role in causing bulimia.
2. Psychological factors or problems such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, impulsive behaviour, depression and anxiety disorders etc. may be the cause of bulimia.
Q13. What are the symptoms of bulimia?
Ans. Although it is not always possible to say effectively whether a person has bulimia yet, there are following symptoms which may indicate bulimia.
1. The affected person goes to washroom after every meal to induce vomiting.
2. The inflammation of food pipe may occur.
3. Eating until the point of discomfort or pain.
4. Broken blood vessels may be seen in the eyes of the individual affected by bulimia.
5. Salivary gland may be swollen.
Q14. What are Vitamins? Write the sources of Vitamins A, E and K.
Ans. Vitamins: Vitamins are the compounds of carbon that are absolutely essential for the normal growth, and working of the body. These are required in very small quantities.
Vitamin-A: Milk, butter, eggs, carrots, pumpkin and green vegetables.
Vitamin-E: Vegetable oil, butter, milk, whole grains, corn, nuts, seeds and spinach.
Vitamin-K: Cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other vegetables. Bacteria in the intestines normally also produce vitamin-K
Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Q1. Discuss the functions and sources of fats.
Ans. Fats are an essential ingredient of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The following are the functions of Fats:
(a) They provide heat and energy to the body
(b) They also help in regulation of body temperature.
(c) They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
(d) They are helpful in making the body soft and oily and protect it from external effects of hot are cold climates. We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs, We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coco etc.
(e) Vegetables Sources: Soybean, Mustard oil and cotton seeds.
Q2. What do you mean by food myths? Explain any 5 food myths prevailing in contemporary.
Ans. 1. Potatoes make you fat: Earlier, people used to think that carbohydrate rich foods such as rice and potato etc., increases body weight. So for losing or reducing weight they used to eliminate carbohydrate rich foods from diet. Now we know that carbohydrates are the body’s preferred energy source. Potatoes do not automatically make you fat. So no problem, you can take potatoes in moderate quantity.
2. Fat-free products will help you in losing weight: If you take fat-free labelled products they can lead to weight gain. In fact, these foods have more calories. Approximately, these products have same number of calories (may be slightly less) in comparison to other regular food. In addition, most of the persons eat more quantity of labelled food under the misconception that it comprises less calories. However, they take a total of more calories which can cause weight gain.
3. Eggs increases cholesterol levels so avoid them: There is no doubt that eggs are good source of health. An egg provides you various nutrients such as protein, vitamins A, B, D, zinc, iron, calcium and phosphorus etc. It is as per daily requirement of cholesterol by our bodies. So, if you take one egg daily there is no problem of cholesterol level.
4. Drinking while eating makes you fat: The actual fact behind this misconception is that enzymes and their digestive juices will be diluted by drinking water while eating. It will slow down your digestion which may lead to excess body fat. In the contrary, there is a scientific fact that drinking water while eating improves digestion.
5. Don’t take milk immediately after eating fish: Most of the persons believe that you should not take milk immediately after eating fish. They think that it will make you sick. Some persons think that spots can appear on your skin. As a matter of fact, there is no scientific reason behind not taking milk immediately after eating fish. Indeed, these products may be taken together. There is no problem at all.
Q3. Elucidate about the various pitfalls of dieting in detail.
Ans. 1. Restriction on some nutrients: Generally some nutrients like carbohydrates and fats are restricted in dieting. In reality your body needs all types of nutrients. If you don’t take all the nutrients in required amounts your proper functioning will be impaired.
2. Skipping meals: It is a fact that if you have good metabolic rate, you can maintain or lose weight. If it is low you gain weight very easily. So, if you skip meals, it will lower your metabolism to conserve energy. So skipping meals works against your weightloss plans. Research studies also show if you skip one meal, you take more calories at the next meal.
3. Intake of calories through drinking: If you want to lose your weight, most probably you lay stress on not to eat more and not on what you drink. In fact, beverages, coffee with cream and sugar, sweetened juices and sodas really contribute to weight gain.
4. Understanding the calories: It is a fact that most of the persons who go on dieting usually underestimate the number of calories they consume. So, it is essential to be more aware about the number of calories you take in your diet.
5. Not performing exercise: If you go on dieting and do not perform exercise it will not work properly. Instead of losing weight you are likely to gain weight. As a matter of fact, exercise has a positive effect on metabolism and also helps to burn some extra calories. Exercise increases metabolic rate which ultimately reduces body weight. So dieting is beneficial if you perform exercise along with it.
Q4. Explain in brief about micro and macro nutrients in detail.
Ans. Minerals and vitamins are included in micro nutrients. Micro nutrients are required in very small amounts. These nutrients are extremely significant for normal functioning of the body. The main function of these nutrients is to enable various chemical reactions to occur in the body. Minerals are further divided into two categories i.e., micro minerals and macro minerals.
Micro Minerals: Some micro minerals are described below:
(a) Iodine: It produces the hormones for the thyroid gland. It is also significant for proper growth and development. Lack of iodine can cause goiter (swollen thyroid gland) and mental retardation. It is found in iodized salt, fish and sea food.
(b) Iron: It is essential in the production of haemoglobin. Its deficiency causes anaemia. It is found in liver, meat, egg, dry fruits, spinach, banana and green leafy vegetables.
(c) Chromium: It stimulates insulin activity. Its deficiency may cause diabetes. It is found in soyabeans, blackgram, carrot, tomato, groundnuts, bajra and barley.
Macro Minerals: Some macro minerals are described below:
(a) Calcium: Calcium is among the top macro-minerals in terms of growth and development of our bones and teeth. It makes the teeth and bones strong and healthy. It helps in blood clotting. Its deficiency may cause rickets. It is found in various products such as cheese, milk, orange juice, eggs, yogurt, green leafy vegetables and cereals.
(b) Potassium: Potassium is one of the most required minerals in diet. It is helpful in keeping the nervous system and muscular system fit and active all the time. It helps in maintaining the amount of water in blood and tissues. Its main sources are banana, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, peanuts, citrus fruits and beans etc.
(c) Sodium: It helps in muscular activities. It also helps in transmission of nerve impulses. Its main sources are table salts, pickles and butter, etc.
(d) Magnesium: It repairs and maintains body cells. It is found in meat, brown rice, beans and whole grains etc.
(e) Phosphorus: Phosphorus helps in the formation of bones and teeth. It keeps the muscles and nerve activities normal. It is found in rich quantity in egg, fish, liver, milk and unpolished rice etc.
Q5. What do you mean by healthy weight? Discuss the methods to control healthy body weight for lifetime.
Ans. Usually a healthy weight is that weight at which an individual leads a healthy life without any risk of diseases. It means that if an individual is at healthy weight, he can lead a healthy life. On the other hand if an individual is at unhealthy weight be it underweight or overweight he is not able to lead a healthy life.
Methods to control Healthy Body Weight:
1. Cut your calories: Keep a plan ready to get back on the track if your body weight begins to exceed the required level. It is a simple plan to follow. Just cut or subtract only 100 calories a day. In this way, you can return to your goal weight.
2. Avoid overeating: To control or maintain weight, you should not overeat. It means that you should eat the food according to the requirement of your body. Suppose, you require 2,000 calories per day, then you should take the food that consists of only 2,000 calories. If you take 2,100 calories per day, the 100 calories will be accumulated daily as fat in your body. So, you should avoid overeating.
3. Avoid rich carbohydrate food: To lose weight, avoid rich carbohydrate food. But it does not mean that you should not take carbohydrates. Carbohydrate is necessary to increase the level of energy. So, you should reduce the amount of carbohydrate in your diet. For this purpose try to avoid sugar, rice, potatoes, toffees, chocolates and other sweets.
4. Don’t skip meals: Don’t skip your meals, such as breakfast, lunch and dinner. If you skip your meal, the next time you will definitely do overeating which may lead to obesity. In fact, skipping meals increases hunger and it results in greater food consumption next time.
Q6. Discuss the role of diet on the performance of a sportsperson.
Ans. Any diet which has all the constituents of food, necessary for the maintenance and growth of body in sufficient amount is essential for all the individuals whether they perform simple work or engage in highly competitive sports. To know the role of particular diet, it would be better to know the role of essential nutrients on performance. These essential nutrients are described below:
1. Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate is also a major fuel for muscular contraction. Research studies suggest that carbohydrate is helpful in increasing the endurance of sports persons. Carbohydrate should not be given to athletes in excessive amount. It may be risky for them. Low level of carbohydrate usually results in exhaustion.
2. Protein: Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body. Now it has been recognized that some amount of protein is conserved as fuel for muscular work. If fat and carbohydrate are available, they are selected preferentially over protein as the source of energy.
3. Minerals: It is well known about minerals that their deficiency can decrease the performance specially during the exercise in hot climate. Sweating reduces the amount of sodium and chloride in the body. Excess amount of salt intake can lead to potassium loss and increased water retention. This condition can be harmful for the persons with hypertension. Still, there is no clear cut indication of research studies that the excess amount of intake of minerals improves the performance.
4. Water: Water is essential for life. The deficiency of water in body has shown decreased performance.
Q7. What do you mean by anorexia nervosa? Explain the causes and management of anorexia in detail.
Ans. Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder that affects women and men of all ages. The individuals who have anorexia nervosa, desire to lose weight because they have intense fear of gaining weight. Such individuals limit the amount of food intake severely and can become dangerously thin. Anorexia not only affects the body but mind also. In this type of eating disorder the affected individuals think only about food, dieting and body weight all the time.
Causes of Anorexia
1. Psychological factor: The affected individual with anorexia are usually perfectionists. They do what they are told. They excel in everything they do and focus themselves on pleasing others. But on the other hand they feel helpless, inadequate and valueless. They never feel good enough.
2. Social factors: Cultural and social pressures to be thin can lead to anorexia. If an individual wants to participate in ballet, gymnastics or modelling, these professions demand to remain thin. Sometimes parents criticize their children’s bodies and appearance. This act of parents can lead the children towards anorexia.
3. Biological factors: Biological factors play a vital role in causing anorexia. If a female with anorexia has an offspring, that offspring is ten to twenty times more likely to develop anorexia.
Management of Anorexia
1. Face the reality: First of all it is essential to face the reality. Realise or admit it that you have a problem of anorexia. Admit it that your relentless pursuit of thinness is out of your control.
2. Restoring healthy weight: An affected person cannot recover from anorexia without restoring appropriate body weight. A psychologist can play an effective role in helping the person to return to a healthy weight. A dietician can provide adequate and proper guidance to a healthy diet.
Q8. What do you mean by non-nutritive components of diet? Explain any four non-nutritive components in brief.
Ans. 1. Water: Water is also an essential component of diet. Even blood comprises 90% of water. With the help of water through blood the nutrients are carried to various cells of the body. It is also significant in the excretion of waste products. It also regulates the body temperature. Our body loses approximately 2% of our body weight as water per day. We recoup this loss of water by drinking water and by intake of food substances.
2. Colour compounds: The food or diet is prepared more appetizing and attractive to see by the wide reflection of colours made possible through pigments. Natural pigments are found in fruits and vegetables. The colours from animal products and grains are less bright.
3. Flavour compounds: The flavours are derived from both nutritive and non-nutritive components of food. Sometimes it becomes very difficult to know the source of a specific flavour. An acidic food provides sour taste while alkaline one provides a bitter taste.
4. Plant compounds: In addition to colour compounds and flavor compounds, there are some plants which contain other non-nutritive substances. When these substances are ingested they may have beneficial or harmful effects.
Q9. What do you mean by bulimia nervosa? Explain its types, causes and treatment in detail.
Ans. Bulimia nervosa also called Bulimia, is an eating disorder. In other words, bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person eats excessive amount of food and then vomits it in order not to gain weight.
Types of Bulimia
1. Purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia, the individual regularly engages in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas.
2. Non-purging Bulimia: In this type of bulimia, the individual uses other methods to get rid of calories and to prevent weight gain. She/ he uses fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise but does not engage in self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxative, diuretics or enemas.
Causes of Bulimia
1. Family history or biological factor plays a role in developing bulimia. Bulimia may develop to an individual whose parent, brother or sister has bulimia. It has some type of genetic link. It is also possible that the deficiency of a chemical called ‘Serotonin’ in the brain may also play role in causing bulimia.
2. Psychological factors or problems such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, impulsive behaviour, depression and anxiety disorders etc. may be the cause of bulimia.