CBSE Class 12 Phy. Edu. Unit-6-Women and Sports

Unit 6 – Women and Sports

 

Introduction 

 

Today the battle for equality between men’s and women’s sports rages on. Women’s sports include participation of women in professional and amateur competitions. Women participation in sports rose dramatically in twentieth century, especially in the last quarter, reflecting changes in modern society that emphasizes gender difference.

 

The level of participation and performance varies from country to country, culture to culture and game to game. Today modern society has accepted the women’s participation in sports competition and it has risen to great extent as compared to past.

 

Participation of Women in Sports in India

 

Participation of women in sports has a long history. In the ancient Olympics women were not allowed to watch the sports competition. Even in the first Modern Olympic Games which were held in 1896 in Athens, there was no participation of women. Women started to participate in the Modern Olympic Games from 1900 onwards. The first Indian women participated in the Olympics held in 1952 were four athletes. Karnam Malleshwari became the first Indian woman to secure a bronze medal in weight lifting in Sydney Olympic Games in 2000. In 2012 London Olympic Games, Saina Nehwal and M.C. Merycom put colourful feathers in the cap of India by securing one bronze medal each. Though P.T. Usha could not win the medal in 1984 Olympic in 400 metres hurdle race, yet that was her extraordinary performance.

 

In fact, there is a long list of female sportspersons who won various positions in World Cups, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and SAF Games etc.

 

But as a matter of fact, women in India are still not able to take stand for themselves. They still do not have equal representation as compared to men. Women are victims of gender inequality. Men have an upper hand in all spheres of life. They are still considered better in Indian societies like other conservative societies of the world. Discrimination against women participation in sports can be seen even in the field of media. How many people know about Anjum Chopra and other women cricket players? It is shocking to know all such incidents of discrimination.

 

Though time is changing very fast and situations are improving. The number of women in sports is increasing year by year. Undoubtly, the number of participation of women in sports is having an increasing trend year by year, but there is still a lot to be done. The number of participant women in sports is still lesser in comparison to men.

 

Reasons for Less Participation of Women in Sports in India

 

1. Lack of Fitness and Wellness Movement: Due to lack of fitness and wellness movement women’s participation in sports is less. We are well aware that sports and games play a very effective as well as significant role in the development of fitness and wellness. But it is deplorable matter for women in India and they do not have strong awareness about their fitness and wellness. Most of women are not aware about fitness movement and wellness movement. Many women and girls are not aware and alert about their shape and size. Some are not conscious about the maintenance of their figure. If they come to know about the value of figure, shape, health, wellness and fitness, they will definitely like to participate in sports because sports and games play an important role in the enhancement of their fitness and wellness.

 

2. Lack of Interest of Spectators and no Coverage of Women’s’ Sports: Lack of interest of spectators is one of the major reasons for less participation of women in sports. There is no surprise if there is less number of spectators in sports competitions of women because there is also less number of spectators in sports competition or tournaments of men. A cricket match may be called an exception where there is always a huge number of spectators but not in women’s cricket match.

 

3. Lack of Personal Safety: Personal safety on the roads, streets, on public transport, in and around venues is an important as well as particular problem for women who want to participate in sports. They may be the easy targets of abuse. Travelling to and fro from sports stadia may be dangerous to women. They do not feel safe. Due to this reason, parents refuse them to take part in sports.

 

4. Lack of Proper Access to Facilities: There is a lack of proper access to facilities provided to women in the field of sports. Facilities in terms of equipment, training and coaching etc. are not usually provided to women in comparison to men. Hence, the participation of women remains low. Even the programmes related to games and sports in girls’ schools and colleges are less in comparison to boy’s schools and colleges. Generally, females do not have adequate playing facilities near their homes that makes it more difficult for them to participate in sports.

 

5. Sports and Games are Considered Masculine: It is one of the reasons of less participation of women in sports because they take it as a masculine activity. However, there is no truth in this statement. Even then they think that they may be lebelled as lesbians if they play almost any sport, apart from few sports which are seen particularly feminine.

 

6. Attitude of Society towards Women’s Sports Participation: The attitude of society plays a vital role towards women’s participation in sports. In male dominated society, the views of male sportspersons about female sportspersons are definitely of low level. It is said, “Why don’t they stay in kitchen, where they belong”. Definitions of masculinity and feminity are given by our society. There is no link of masculinity and feminity with the participation in sports.

 

7. Lack of Education among Women: Due to lack of education, women are surrounded by baseless and imaginative misconceptions spread in our society, e.g., it is considered in our society that physical, social and psychological characteristics or qualities of women are changed who participate in games and sports. It is also considered that a number of problems occur at the time of delivery to those women who participate in sports. However, the truth is completely opposite. There are various msiconceptions prevailing in our society by participating the women in sports, such as bones of women become weak and their feminity is also endangered. In fact, these are only misconceptions which are not related to any fact. Due to lack of education, women also start to think on the same line and, that is why their participation becomes limited.

 

8. Lack of Women Coaches: Lack of women coaches in India is also one of the reasons of less participation of women in sports. If the number of women coaches is enhanced there will definitely be an increase in women’s participation in sports and games.

 

9. Lack of Sports Culture: India lacks sports culture. Too much emphasis on classroom theoretical studies has made most of Indian children couch potatoes. Sports is a last priority in schools.

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark) 

 

Q1. What do you mean by menarche?

 

Ans. A girl's first menstrual period or first menstrual bleeding is known as menarche. Menarche is a sign of growing up and becoming a woman. Menarche usually occurs between 9 and 15 years of age.

 

Q2. What is menstrual disfunction?

 

Ans. A menstrual disorder is an irregular condition in a women’s menstrual cycle. Most menstrual cycles occur every 22 to 35 days. Normal menstrual flow lasts 3 to 7 days, with most blood loss occurring within the first 3 days. Increasing numbers of women of all ages have been participating in sports at both recreational and competitive levels. Most girls and women derive significant health benefits from regular physical activity. They can achieve the same training effects as do men, such as decreased blood pressure, lowered heart rate, and improved aerobic capacity, as well as decreased percent body fat.

 

Q3. What is menopause? 

 

Ans. Menopause is the time when a woman stops having menstrual periods and she is no longer able to have children. The age of menopause is normally between 45 and 55 years. It is not a disease or illness. It is a transition between two phases of a woman's life.

 

Q4. What is amenorrhea?

 

Ans. Poor nutrition, low calories intake, high-energy demands, physical and emotional stress, or low percentage of body fat can lead to hormonal changes that stop menstrual periods.

 

Q5. What is osteoporosis?

 

Ans. Lack of periods disrupts the body’s bone—building processes and weakens the skeleton, making bones more likely to break.

 

Q6. What is anaemia?

 

Ans. Abnormal eating habits or excessive exercise keeps the body from getting enough nutrition.

 

Q7. What is the time when a pregnant women athlete should not participate in sporting competition?

 

Ans. There is no definite point during pregnancy when a female athlete should cease competition. Decisions regarding participation should be made by the female athlete in conjunction with her healthcare provider.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Mark) 

 

Q1. What are the factors that cause hindrance in the participation of women in sports?

 

Ans. The following factors are responsible for less participation of women in sports:

 

(ì) Time constraints: Women find less time for sports due to their domestic duties.

(ii)Social constraints: the attitude of society towards participation of women in sports is negative.

(iii) Lack of sports infrastructure: There is particularly less infrastructure for women.

(iv) Absence of skill: There are very few female coaches available to develop the skills of women. Sociological constraints limit the success of male coaches with female athletes.

(v) Concerns for personal safety: Women are more afraid to venture in female field as they are concerned more about safety from harassment or exploitation.

 

Q2. What do you understand by female athlete triad and what are its components? 

 

Ans. The Female athlete triads syndrome of three related conditions are generally seen in teenage or adult female athletes who aren't meeting their energy requirements, which ultimately leaves them undernourished.

 

The three components of the female athlete triad include:

 

(í) Disordered eating and anemia (Energy deficits)

(ii) Amenorrhea (Menstrual irregularities)

(iii) Osteoporosis (Decreased bone density)

 

A female athlete can exhibit symptoms of one, two, or all three parts of the triad.

 

Q3. How can osteoporosis ruin a female athlete's career?

 

Ans. Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. It happens when you lose too much bone, make too little bone or both. As a result bones may break from a minor fall. Estrogen is lower in case of female athletes. Low estrogen levels and poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake, can lead to osteoporosis.

 

Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones due to the loss of bone density and improper bone formation. This condition can ruin a female athlete's career because it may lead to bone fractures and other injuries.

 

Q4. Why there is less participation of women in India? Give any three reasons.

 

Ans. Here are some factors regarding women’s non-participation in games and sports. The result may go a long way in removing some of these prejudices. Some hidden talents of women will be helpful in improving the level of participation and achievement at the national and international level of Indian women.

 

1. No parental encouragement: There has been lack of encouragement from the parents and family members.

2. Traditional Society: The traditional way of living was a big hurdle for women taking part in games and sports.

3. Less Knowledge: There was lack of sports orientation of the people living m the society. Taking part in games and sports for women has not become a common phenomenon.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

 

Q1. What are psychological factors affecting women’s participating in sports.

 

Ans. Gender beliefs and stereotypes are found everywhere. Social pressures are very strong. Parents, teachers, peers and social institutions treat girls and boys differently from birth. Overall, differential treatment and gender bias remains with women throughout the life. Society has set certain yardstick for male and female acceptable behaviour in society. Social traditions and customs has great influence upon psyche of women. In male dominating conservative societies boys are aggressive, loud, independent and dominating whereas in contrast girls remain emotional, sensitive, helpless and timid. We can’t ignore social content in the real world. Social situations has great influence upon the psychological aspect of women’s personality. Sports psychology research on gender is limited. On the basis of these researches, we conclude the following facts about psychological variables of sports women:

 

1. More goal oriented.

2. Fast Adoption.

3. Poise and confidence

3. Image conscious

5. Less aggressive

6. Psychological stronger.

 

Q2. Briefly discuss the methods to increase women's participation in sports.

 

Ans. The following steps should be taken to increase women's participation in sports.

 

(a) Coaching programmes: During coaching, women should be motivated and provided appropriate opportunity to undertake leadership positions within an organisation. 

 

(b) Safety: This is another factor that promotes girls participation in sports. Exercising in groups can make physical activity safer for women and girls.

 

(c) Facilities: keeping in mind the hygienic needs of women and girls separate change facilities should be arranged for them. Childcare should be provided so that women can bring their children to the training or competition venues without hesitation.

 

(d) Affordability: Most of the women depend upon the male members of the family. Their earning capacity is usually negligible. So some concessions should be given to them. Participation fee should be abolished, travelling and boarding should be provided cheap etc.

 

Q3. What are the reasons of low participation of women in sports in India?

 

Ans. Here are some new facts regarding women’s non-participation in games and sports. The results may go a long way in removing some of these prejudices. Some hidden talents of women will be helpful in improving the level of participation and achievement at the national and international level of Indian Women.

 

1. No parental encouragement: There has been lack of encouragement from the parents and family members.

2. Traditional Society: The traditional way of living was a big hurdle for women taking part in games and sports.

3. Less Knowledge: There was lack of sports orientation of the people living in the society. Taking part in games and sports for women has not become a common phenomenon.

4. Less motivation and inspiration: There has not been good leadership among physical education personnel and a proper motivating system.

5. Women constraining other women: It has been clearly found that govt. college women had expressed more constraints compared to private college women.

 

The reason for this low participation could be:

 

1. Less % of literacy.

2. Male dominant culture.

3. Family and social level abstraction.

4. Less availability of women coach

5. No independent games facilities for women

6. Child marriage

7. Low health consciousness

8. More emphasis on study.

9. Cut through competition in education.

10. More emphasis on tuition classes.

11. Less importance to sports at society level

12. Lack of govt. plans for sports person

13. Lack of incentive marks

 

 

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