CBSE Class 12 Phy. Edu. Unit-7-Test & Measurement in Sports

Unit 7 - Test and Measurement in Sports

 

Introduction

 

In physical education, tests and measurements are the instruments for getting necessary details of sportspersons such as their needs, capacities, abilities and attitudes. It is very important particularly for the sportspersons to set the objectives which they want to fulfill in physical education and sports programme. It is also important to determine whether or not the objectives have been achieved. In physical education tests are used to collect information or data about a specific skill, strength, endurance, knowledge, behaviour or attitude etc. where measurements are related to physical measurements, such as size, height, weight, vital capacity and achievements etc.

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark)

 

Q1. What do you mean by muscular strength?

 

Ans. Muscular strength is one of the important component of physical fitness. It is the amount of force the muscle or a group of muscle can exert against resistance for short duration as in anaerobic activities. Muscular strength is essential for performing daily routine work easily and smoothly.

 

Q2. What do you mean by flexibility?

 

Ans. Flexibility is the range of movements of joints. In other words, it means the range of motion available in a joint. It is affected by muscle length, joint structure, tendons, ligaments and other factors. An individual, who has good flexibility can move his body joints through a full range of motion in mark and play.

 

Q3. What is Kraus-Weber test?

 

Ans. This tests consists of six items. It is commonly known as the Kraus-Weber tests. These tests are supposed to measure the minimum muscular fitness of an individual. In fact, they measure the level of strength and flexibility of certain key muscle groups below which the functioning of the whole body as a healthy individual seems to be endangered.

 

Q4. What is Rockport one mile test?

 

Ans. Rockport one mile test is also known as Rockport fitness walking test. This test is suitable for sedentary individual. The objective of this test is to check or observe the development of the individual’s V02 max. i.e., maximum volume of oxygen.

 

Q5. What do you mean by motor fitness?

 

Ans. Motor fitness refers to the capability of an athlete to perform effectively at his/her particular sport. In can be said that motor fitness is a person’s ability to perform physical activities.

 

Q6. What do you mean by cardiovascular fitness?

 

Ans. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movements. 

 

Q7. What do you mean by Harvard Step Test?

 

Ans. Harvard Step Test is a cardiovascular fitness test. It is also called aerobic fitness test. It was developed by Brouha and others in 1943. It is used to measure the cardiovascular fitness or aerobic fitness by checking the recovery rate.

 

Q8. What do you mean by Senior Citizen Fitness Test?

 

Ans. This test is also known as fullerton functional test of senior citizens. It helps the early identification of at risk participants. Along this, it is significant to plan safe and effective physical exercise programmes for senior citizens because individual’s health and fitness level can be known better with the help of this test.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

 

Q1. What do you mean by test and measurement?

 

Ans. Tests and measurement in physical education are the instruments or devices for getting essential details regarding the needs, capacities, abilities and attitudes of students or sportspersons.

 

Tests are used to collect information or data about a specific skill, strength, endurance, knowledge, behaviour or attitude etc.

 

Measurements are related to physical measurements such as size, height, weight, vital capacity and achievements etc. Indeed, measurement refers to the process of administrating a test to obtain a quantitative data.

 

Q2. Give the names of the tests design by Riklar and Jones for senior citizen fitness and state what each test is used to test.

 

Ans. The tests designed by Riklar and Jones for senior citizen fitness are:

 

(ì) Chair stand test for lower body strength.

(ii) Arm curl test for upper body strength and endurance.

(iii) Chair sit and reach test for lower body flexibility.

(iv) Back scratch test for upper body flexibility.

(V) Eight foot up and go test for coordination and agility.

(vi) Six minute walk test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

 

Q3. Describe the purpose and procedure of six minute walk test for aerobic endurance.

 

Ans. This test measures aerobic fitness and endurance of senior citizens. In this test the walking course is laid out in a 50 yard (45. 72 mtr.) rectangular area (dimension 45 × 5 yards) with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are to set their own pace if they desire.

 

Q4. Discuss any two tests of Kraus-Weber tests.

 

Ans. 1. Test No. 1: The subject lies down in supine position i.e., flat on his back and hands behind his neck. The examiner holds his feet to keep him on the ground. The subject is asked to perform one sit-up. If he performs one sit-up, he passes this test. If he cannot raise his shoulders from the table or ground, his score remains zero.

 

2. Test No. 2: The lying position for this test remains same i.e. in supine position except that his knees are bent and ankles remain in touch with his buttocks. He is asked to perform one sit-up. If he is able to perform full sit-up, he passes this test. If he is unable to raise his shoulders from the tables or ground, he gets zero.

 

Q5. What parts of the body do each of the Kraus Weber tests of fitness test?

 

Ans. The Kraus Weber test consists of following six tests:

 

Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.

Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.

Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.

Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.

Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back. 

Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

 

Q6. Briefly explain about muscular strength.

 

Ans. Muscular strength is one of the important components of physical fitness. It is the amount of force the muscle or a group of muscular strength is essential for performing daily routine work easily and smoothly, such as lifting weight and climbing on stairs etc.

 

It is also essential for maintaining good posture, avoiding injuries and remaining independent specially in old age. It can be measured with the help of Kraus - Weber Test.

 

Q7. Briefly explain about skinfold measurements.

 

Ans. In this test calipers skin is used to measure the thickness of fat from various parts of the body. After measuring the thickness of different parts of body, the measurements are put an equation (different equation for girls and boys) to calculate the body density. After calculating body density, it is put in another equation to calculate the body fat percentage. All the measurements must be done on the right side of the body and must be noted in millimetres.

 

Q8. Discuss cardiovascular fitness in brief.

 

Ans. Before proceeding to various tests of cardiovascular fitness it will be essential for us to know the clear-cut meaning of cardiovascular fitness. In fact, cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movements. This type of fitness is required to sustain physical activity or it can be said that cardiovascular fitness is essential for us to perform aerobic activities. There are following tests to measure the cardiovascular fitness.

 

Q9. What is the usefulness of back scratch test for senior citizens?

 

Ans. The usefulness of the back scratch test for senior citizens is to assess the upper body flexibility, particularly the shoulder. This is important in performing various items of daily routine like combing one's hair, putting on garments requiring to be worn from over the head, reaching for a seat belt etc.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

 

Q1. What do you mean by AAPHER Fitness Test? Explain administration of any these items of this test.

 

Ans. In the beginning, its name was AAPHER i.e., American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation but now it is known as AAPHERD i.e., American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. It is one of the oldest professional organizations in the U.S.A. Its motor fitness tests have been the major instruments for measuring motor fitness in American School children for over 50 years. Administration of AAPHERD Youth Fitness Test

 

1. Flexed-leg Sit-ups: The student lies on back with legs in flexed position i.e. in bent knee position. His/her hands should be behind the neck. Elbows must touch the knees while performing sit-ups. The total number of repetitions of sit-ups is noted is on minute only.

 

2. Standing Long Jump: A take-off line is marked on the ground. Subject stands just behind the take-off line with the feet several inches apart. The subject swings the arms and bend the knees to take a jump in the long jump pit. Three trials are given to the subject. The distance is measured from the take-off line to the heat or other part of body that touches the ground nearest to the take-off line.

 

3. 50-yard Dash: The subject takes the starting position behind the starting line. The starter commands, “Are you ready?” and “Go”. The word ‘Go’ is accompanied by a downward sweep of the starter’s arm as a signal to the timer. Two subjects can run at the same time if there are two stop watches. The score is recorded in seconds to the nearest 10th of a second.

 

Q2. Explain the three tests of Kraus-Weber Test.

 

Ans. 1. Test No. 1: The subject lies down in supine position i.e., flat on his back and hands behind his neck. The examiner holds his feet to keep him on the ground. The subject is asked to perform one sit-up. If he performs one sit-up, he passes this test. If he cannot raise his shoulders from the table or ground, his score remains zero.

 

2. Test No. 2: The lying position for this test remains same i.e., in supine position except that his knees are bent and ankles remain in touch with his buttocks. He is asked to perform one sit-up. If he is able to perform full sit-up, he passes this test. If he is unable to raise his shoulders from the table or ground, he gets zero.

 

3. Test No. 3: The subject’s position remains the same but the examiner holds his chest down. The subject is asked to raise his feet. His knees should be straight. The examiner counts to 10 seconds. Scoring from 0-10 depends on the number of seconds he holds the position.

 

Q3. Explain the Rockport one mile Test.

 

Ans. Rockport one mile test is also known as Rockport fitness walking test. This test is suitable for sedentary individual. The objective of this test is to check or observe the development of the individual’s V02 max i.e., maximum volume of 02.

 

Equipments Required: 400 m track, stopwatch, and weighting scale. Administration of Test: While conducting or administering this test, it should be a windless day. First of all, take the body weight of the individual on a perfect weighing machine. The weight should be taken with minimum clothes on body of the individual. Then work the starting point on a 400 m track. The individual has to run the distance of one mile i.e., 1609 metres in minimum time. So, record the time of one mile with a stopwatch. Immediately after the finishing of the one mile work/run, record the heart rate with manual method or monitor method. The monitor on ECG/EEG can be used to get a more accurate heart rate.

 

Q4. Explain in brief the Harvard Step Test.

 

Ans. Harvard Step Test is a cardiovascular fitness test. It is also called aerobic fitness test. It was developed by Brouhav and others in 1943. It is used to measure the cardiovascular fitness or aerobic fitness by checking the recovery rate.

 

Equipment Required: A gym bench of 20 inches high for men and 16 inches for women, a stopwatch and cadence tape.

 

Procedure: The athlete stands in front of the bench of box. On the command ‘Go’ the athlete steps up and down on the bench or box at a rate of 30 steps per minute (one second up one second down) for 5 minutes (150 steps). Stopwatch is also started simultaneously at the start of the stepping.

 

Q5. Discuss the Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility.

 

Ans. Purpose: To assess the upper body (shoulder) flexibility, which is important in performing various jobs such as combing one’s hair, putting on overhead garments and reaching for a seat belt etc.

 

Equipment Required: A Ruler.

 

Procedure: This Test is performed in standing position. Keep one hand behind the head and back over the shoulder and reach as for as possible down middle of your back. Your palm should touch your body and the fingers should be downwards. Then carry your other arm behind your back palm facing outward and fingers upward and reach up as far as possible trying to touch or overlap the middle fingers of both hands. Fingers should be aligned. Measure the distance between the tips of the fingers.

 

Q6. Explain Sit and Reach Test in brief.

 

Ans. Purpose: To assess the lower body flexibility, which is important for good posture, for normal gait patterns and for various mobility tasks such as getting in and out of both tub and car.

 

Equipments required: Ruler, a chair with straight back approximately 44 cm high.

 

Procedure: The participant sits on the edge of the chair (kept against a wall for safety purpose). One foot remains flat on the floor while the other leg should be extended remain forward with the knee straight. Heel should be on the floor and ankle should be bent at 90°. Place one hand on the top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even. Instruct the participant to inhale and then as he exhales, reach forward towards the foes by bending at the hip. His back should be straight and head up.

 

Q7. Explain the Ann Curl Test for upper body strength for senior citizens.

 

Ans. The Arm Curl Test is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arms curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side), the procedure is:

 

(a) The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically down position beside the chair.

(b) The upper arm is placed against the body so that only the lower arm is moving (the tester may assist to hold the upper arm steady).

(c) The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination).

(d) Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbow.

(e) Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 sec. 

(f) Score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec. 

 

 

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