A factual description of a place or a person or an object requires details which must logically be woven in a paragraph with appropriate cohesion devices. The description should not appear sketchy, fragmented or loose. The appropriate format and style must be followed.
(a) Description of a place/building must include the location, outside surroundings, interiors, purpose, etc.
(b) Description of a person must include outward appearance, mannerisms, dress, gait, features, way of talking, and any other particular information to be given which may be relevant to the description.
(c) Description of an object must incorporate its outward appearance, its constituents or parts, its function or purpose, any faults or advantages and any other detail relevant to the question.
Q1. Today a lady, an acquaintance of your mother, came to visit your house. Your mother was not at home at that time. When she comes back you describe the lady to her in such a way that she can recall and recognize her. Write the description.
Factual Description of a Visitor
Mother, today a lady came to our house at around 11 O’clock. I was alone in the house at that time. When I opened the door, I saw that a tall fair woman dressed in an elegant salwar kameez was standing at the door. She handed me her card and told me that she had met you in Bangalore during a conference. She told her name as Vandana. She was carrying a brown leather handbag and had long black hair which she had left open. Her hair were particularly noticeable, being so beautiful. She said that you might not be remembering her so the card would help you in recognising her. She also showed me the visiting card which you had given to her in Bangalore. She told me that she located the house with the help of the map drawn on the backside of the card. She has given her contact number and address of Delhi and has said that she will stay in Delhi for 2 days and you can come to meet her.
Q2. Yesterday two thieves made an attempt to burgle your house but were unsuccessful because you saw them outside your window in the moonlight and raised an alarm. In the mean time they managed to escape. Describe the burglars to the police for identification.
Factual Description of the Burglars
One burglar was a burly man of around 30 years of age. He was wearing black coloured clothes to camouflage in the dark. He was bare-foot and carried a sack on his shoulder which carried some tools or weapons or may be some loot. Whatever it was it made a faint clanging noise as he walked. He also had a slight limp. I could see everything clearly as I was standing in the dark in my room hidden behind the curtain and it was a bright moon-lit night outside. It was the time of around 11.30 p.m. at night. I had just finished studying and had switched off the light of my room. When I came out of the wash-room after freshening up, I saw some movement outside. First I thought there was only one man but after a few minutes one more emerged from the bushes. He looked thin and younger and was perhaps the heavier man’s assistant. He was only dressed in a vest and shorts. They seemed to have scaled the boundary wall and were hiding in the bushes planning to enter the house after ensuring everyone had gone to sleep. When he tried the doors and windows I got scared and shouted for help. Hearing my cries they both ran away before my father could get his air gun.
Q3. Avinash stays in a small town. This time he went to his uncle’s house, who stays in Delhi, to celebrate Diwali. He was very impressed by the decoration and hustle-hustle of the city and writes a description for his school magazine.
Celebration of Diwali at My Uncle’s House
This time I went to my uncle’s house who stays in Delhi to celebrate Diwali with my cousins. Oh ! what an experience it was. Days before the market-place had been decorated with earthen lamps and figurines of Ganesha and Laxmi were being sold in large numbers. There were several kinds of fairs, fetes, Diwali Melas, exhibitions and discount sales, festival-season programmes being held all over the city. The markets were bursting with shoppers. Crackers, sweets, dry-fruits, gifts, clothes, gadgets all were being sold by tons. Uncle took me to see the hustle and bustle of many markets while he shopped. Sometimes he bought gifts for his office, sometimes sweets for friends or household goods for his house and family. On the evening of the festival I went with my cousins for a drive to some nearby areas of the city. The entire area was decorated with lights of different kinds. Coloured bulbs, candles, lamps, blinking lights all made the colony look like a bride. It was breath-takingly beautiful.
— Tanuja, Class XI
Q4. Your school has recently built a new computer room and installed five new machines. Write a factual description of it for your school magazine.
A New Computer Room in My School
One week ago the school became the proud owner of five sophisticated sleek computers. They are IBM Compatible Models complete with Central Processing Unit (CPU), keyboard, printer, terminal and mouse. They have various applications running on the system like Basic Language Programming, Spread Sheet, Word Processor, etc. Some video games have also been loaded to generate interest among the students and teach them how to use the various units. The computers are kept in an air-conditioned room which has to be kept dust free. So shoes are taken out and the main room is separated by a glass screen from the entrance. Two computer teachers have been appointed who have already started teaching us the theoretical portion of the syllabus, mainly the computer language. The other one is teaching us how to use the keyboard and mouse. When the school installed the machines many of us had seen the computers from such close quarters for the first time. It was a thrilling experience.
— Rajat, Class XI
Q5. You have recently been to Chennai for your friend’s wedding. You were very surprised to see the railway station of Chennai which being a terminal station is different from other stations. Write a factual description of it for your school magazine.
A Visit to Chennai Railway Station
Chennai Central Station, I found, is a unique railway station because it is the last station on the South-East coast of India i.e. trains cannot go further South-East from Madras. They simply end there. If they have to go further south they have to take a separate route. I saw a terminal station that is what Chennai Central is, for the first time. It is so different from other railway stations having no stairs and no over bridges. One can simply walk to any of the platforms because all converge on to the main lobby of the station. Each rail track ends at a point and the trains simply stop there. Thus it looks more like an airport: spacious, airy, quite clean with very few porters and many luggage trolleys standing for self-service. It has many cold drinks and coffee vending machines, South Indian food joints, railway catering canteen, retiring rooms and rest houses. Thus it is one of the most modern and well-equipped stations. You can even see flowers being sold on the station as Tamil women are very fond of them. There is a cool sea breeze blowing reminding one of the presence of sea nearby.
— Amita, Class XII
Q6. Last week you attended a seminar on the importance of blood donation organized by Red Cross Society, New Delhi. Write a factual description to be read in the morning assembly.
Honourable Principal, teachers and dear friends
Good Morning to you all
I happened to attend a seminar on the importance of blood donation that was organized by Red Cross Society, New Delhi. Near about 90 students from different schools and 50 doctors from different hospitals of Delhi attended the seminar. The Union Health Minister pointed out the importance of blood for our life. He revealed that a single drop of blood can save the precious life of a dying man. He stated that by donating blood they are not inviting any ailment or deficiency of any kind in the body. It is the mental or psychological whim that a donor possesses in his or her mind about some weakness. A healthy man can donate blood after every six months and he will remain in a perfect trim. Other eminent doctors too stated that they should save and protect their blood and utilize it at the proper time. The seminar concluded that the masses should be educated to donate blood.
Instructions & Directions
Instructions and directions as their name indicates include guidelines, advice, precautions, warnings and steps to be followed in order to achieve some purpose. They include points which must follow in logical order, suggestions—do’s and don’ts which must be kept in mind while achieving the desired result. Each point must lead to another and make the composition a cohesive whole.
Q1. You are going to the hostel next week. Your mother writes a set of instructions and directions and gives it to you. It includes Dos and Don’ts and directions about managing your routine. Write her instructions.
Instructions & Directions
Once you will be on your own, you will realize that independence is very sweet but requires lot of responsibility. You have already learnt how to sew a button on your shirt. You should know how to make a cup of tea. Knowing how to fix a fuse is also important. You should be able to handle emergencies like sickness or being hurt. Always contact the authorities in that case.
You should wind your alarm clock at night so that you can wake up in time. Be quick in getting ready but do not neglect personal hygiene. There will be no Mom to remind you. Your good health is important for you to study hard, so eat well. The mess food may not be like home’s. But it is more wholesome and hygienic than food outside. So do not eat cheap spicy food in the outside eating places. You must make friend with other boys in the hostel. Being in good company will not make you homesick. I know you can handle all this well. So my good wishes are with you.
Q2. Central Electricity Authority has to release pamphlets to be distributed among general public to create awareness about conservation of electricity in the wake of increasing power shortage in the country. Write the instructions and do’s and don’ts for the purpose.
Instructions & Directions
In view of the continued power shortage consumers are requested to follow certain regulatory measures restricting use of power:
1. Electrical gadgets like geysers, air conditioners, heaters, hot plates should be used sparingly.
2. Do not leave fans, bulbs and appliances on when not in use.
3. Use energy efficient gadgets & ISI marked products instead of local products.
4. Get your gadgets repaired regularly to prevent loss in transmission.
5. Avoid buying second hand/old gadgets and power intensive luxury appliances.
6. Reduce too much dependence on power.
7. Encourage alternate sources of energy—solar and wind power energy.
8. Reduce friction in moving parts of appliances by regular lubrication.
Q3. Green Movement is an environmental organization which educates children on how to keep their surroundings and environment clean. As a volunteer of the organization. Write instructions and directions for a lecture in school.
Instructions & Directions
We should remember that earth is our own planet and every individual effort that we make towards its protection matters. In fact, at our personal level we can achieve a lot. Today I will show how you can do that.
1. First of all, we must check our habit of wasting paper, throwing it around and littering our surroundings. All such waste material like toffee wrappers, bits of paper, aluminium foil, polythenes which we use in everyday life can be collected and sold. This way at least it does not make the surroundings untidy.
2. We should also persuade our parents to use unleaded petrol, get catalytic convertors and get our vehicles checked for emissions. Minimum use of vehicles should be practised. Simple chores can be accomplished by walking or cycling instead of using scooter or car every time. For going to the office also car pools can be made.
3. Another important step is to check the use of fluoro-carbons like sprays, insecticides as all these deplete the ozone layer in the environment.
4. Biodegradable waste like vegetable and fruit peels, dry leaves, egg shells can all be used in the backyard of the house to make manure. It’s high time we all contributed our little bit to the environment.
Q4. Apex Trekking Club is looking for members for trekking expeditions to various destinations during summer vacations. Their secretary informs the students of Joseph Public School about the various requirements, do’s and don’ts and points to remember for trekking. Write them.
Instructions & Directions
Today I will give you some instructions and tips about safe trekking.
1. A person who is fond of trekking should have lot of courage and stamina. The body should be conditioned by regular exercise a few days before the trek to take the continuous strain of steep climbs.
2. The person should possess good sturdy sports shoes, plenty of warm but not heavy woolen clothes, a pocket knife, some medicines for common ailments like fever, cold, etc. and first aid equipment. A torch, some light snacks, water should also be handy. All these things should be kept in a light, convenient knap-sack to be carried behind your back.
3. Last but not the least the prospective trekkers should have ample amount of sportsmanship: to be able to help other trekkers in need and lot of independence and presence of mind to be able to handle emergencies.
Let me tell you that it’s only the first trek which is difficult. I hope this short lecture must have driven out all fears and suspicion from your mind. All those who are interested in joining us for the next trek can give their names to the Principal of your school.
Q5. Your twelve year old cousin has come home from the hospital after a brief spell of illness. Your aunt has requested you to come and look after her for two days because she has to go out of town for an important meeting. You ask your mother for advice on how to look after a sick person. On behalf of her write the instructions and do’s and don’ts.
Instructions & Directions
A sick person has to be handled very carefully. One has to be responsible and patient. She may be feeling a little low so you can carry, some fresh flowers and a ‘Get well soon’ card which can make her feel better and cheerful. You must keep the room airy and cool. Also keep her clothes loose and comfortable. Talk to her or play soft music if she likes but don’t give her unnecessary strain of sitting for long hours or talking too loudly. Give her light and easily digestible food which is not spicy or hot. It would be better if she took small amounts at frequent intervals because it would not burden her digestive system. Foods like fruit juices, vegetable soup, porridge, ‘Khichdi, toasted bread, light tea will all do her good. In the morning help her have a sponge and change of clothing with powder so that she feels fresh. Help her in getting down from the bed and walk a little to give her muscles a bit of exercise. Keep medicines, water, doctor’s and aunt’s telephone numbers handy, just in case of an emergency. I know you can manage, so best of luck.
Q6. Mukesh Kumar has to appear for an interview for a job next week. He seeks help from his father about preparing for the interview. His father is going on an official tour for a period often days. Before leaving he writes a set of instructions and directions for Mukesh. Write the instructions on his behalf.
Instructions & Directions
1. It has been quite some time since you finished your college. So you must study your academic subjects thoroughly.
2. Being aware of current affairs and happenings around you will help in showing how up to date and well informed you are.
3. Keep your certificates, mark sheets, both academic and of extra-curricular activities and of previous job neatly arranged in a folder. Do not forget to check the letter to see if they have asked for any particular document.
4. You can also plan a few answers to the questions you think they might ask.
5. You can even practise your movements in front of the mirror to remove any hesitation or nervousness that you are likely to feel. The way you enter, wish, walk, sit and talk: all reflect your state of mind. So be relaxed, confident and attentive.
6. Listen carefully to each question before jumping to answer. Think before replying.
7. Everybody does not know all the answers, don’t hesitate in admitting ‘I’m afraid, “I don’t know’ if you don’t know the answer. Even if you disagree with a view point you can politely say so, “I’m sorry Sir, I don’t agree with you” and convince them with what you think about it.
8. Lastly, be smartly and neatly dressed. Think of what you will wear beforehand and keep it ready.
Process writing is only slightly different from instructions in content. Recipes, experiments, all require a process to be followed. This process contains points in the same order in which they have to be performed.
Students must remember to first collect all ideas related to the question in rough and then plan and organise them in fair.
Instructions and directions and process writing involve the usage of imperative speech for example (Take a beaker or do not turn left, or do remember to keep a torch, etc.). As you can see, no subject is required in most of the sentences.
Q. You are staying at a boarding school. You want to open a Savings Bank Account. Write how to open a Savings Bank Account in about 150 words.
Opening a Savings Bank Account
The process of Opening a Savings Bank Account is very simple. Go to bank and ask the clerk on duty at the Saving Account counter to give you a prescribed printed form for opening an account. You must take with you and your identity card and Aadhar Card. You are required to enter your name and address in it. You can give the name of nominee. You have to put your signature at two or three places on it. This is termed as your specimen signature. Each applicant is required to sign a declaration to the effect that he or she has read and accepted the rules for the conduct of Savings Bank Deposit Account. After you have opened an account, you are given a bank Pass Book with your name, home address and account number written on it. You can withdraw the amount required by filling in the withdrawal form.
Q2. Kunika’s father is down with fever. The doctor advises him to take light food like ‘Khicdi’, etc. Her mother has important work in the office and she leaves instructions for her on how to make ‘Khicdi’. Write them for her.
How to Make Khichdi
First of all mix 5 table spoonfuls of dal (green moong) with 5 table spoonfuls of rice and wash them four to five times in running water. Strain the water and soak it in 1 cup of filtered water for half an hour. When it is soaked, put half a teaspoon of butter in a pressure cooker on a slow flame, when it is melted, crackle some cumin seeds and a pinch of asoeftida. Add a pinch of turmeric and a quarter spoon of salt. Pour the soaked dal and rice in the cooker along with the water and add 2 more cups of water. Close the lid of the cooker and let it cook on slow flame for ten minutes or give 3-4 whistles. When the pressure from the cooker is released, open it to see if it is done. The dal and rice should be well cooked and mixed in the gruel. It should be slightly thin. Take it out into a plate and serve to it your father.
Q3. Your uncle who stays abroad wants to admit his two children aged four and five years respectively in a school in Delhi. He wants to know the procedure of admission in the schools. Write the process for him.
The Admission procedure in the schools of Delhi
In Delhi the system of admission in various schools for KG classes is by lottery or by screening through interviews. Advertisements start appearing in various newspapers from November onwards for the availability of registration forms. The age requirement is generally mentioned. some schools take children of 4 years and above for KG classes while others accept children of 5 years and above for class I.
Schools have different processes. Some require the forms to be taken and filled then and there itself while others give enough time to fill the details and submit them. Proof of residence, birth certificate, photos of child are some of the important documents required.
In Delhi because of long distances, transportation is a great problem. So many schools cater to areas within 10 km radius only, or many screen the applications according to area mentioned. The child, along with the parents is then called for interview. General awareness, muscle control of hands, confidence and ability to communicate are some of the qualities observed. Selected candidates are then informed, either by post or told to check at the school notice-board.