Electric Field Intensity at a point on the axial line of an electric dipole
This position is also known as ‘Endon position’.
What is an axial line?
Axial line is the line joining the centres of positive and negative charges forming an electric dipole.
Consider an electric dipole consisting of +q and q charges separated by a distance 2l.
Consider a point D at a distance ‘r’ from the centre O of the dipole on the axial line of the dipole.
Let a unit positive charge be placed at point D.
First of all we find electric field at point D due both the charges

Electric field intensity at D due to +q charge is given by

Electric field intensity at D due to q charge is given by
Applying principle of superposition,the net electric field intensity at point D is given by
If r >>>>> l
then,
Electric Field Intensity at a point on the equatorial line of an electric dipole
This position is also known as ‘Broadsideon position’.
What is an equatorial line?
The line perpendicular to the axial line and passes through the centre of the electric dipole length is called an equatorial line.
Consi
der an electric dipole AB consisting of +q and q charges separated by a distance 2l.
Let P be the point on the equatorial line at a distance r from the centre O of the dipole. A unit positive charge is placed at P.
First of all we find electric field at point P due both the charges

Electric field intensity at P due to +q charge is given by

Electric field intensity at P due to q charge is given by
(E1) and (E2 ) are inclined at an angle of 2θ.Applying parallelogram law of vector addition.As
The net electric field intensity(E) due to the electric dipole at point P.
If r <<<<< l
then,